Rafique, Haroon (2017) MERLIN for High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider Collimation. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.
Abstract

The large hadron collider (LHC) uses the most energetic and highest luminosity
man made proton beams on Earth. The high luminosity (HL-LHC)
[1] upgrade aims to increase the levelled luminosity of the LHC by a factor
of five, to 5 · 1034cm−2
s
−1
, by increasing the bunch population from 1 to
2.22·1011 protons, and decreasing emittance, and β

. Thus the stored beam
energy increases from ≈ 362 MJ to ≈ 675 MJ per beam.
All synchrotrons encounter unavoidable proton losses. Protons that populate
the beam halo pose a threat to the performance and lifetime of certain
hardware, such as superconducting magnets, which in the LHC may be
quenched by an impact of ≈ 1 · 106 protons [2]. A multi stage collimation
system must operate at an efficiency such that no more than 2 · 10−5% of
protons incident on collimators may escape and impact upon these magnets
[3].
To predict and protect against proton losses in the HL-LHC, collimation
simulations must be performed. MERLIN, a C++ accelerator physics library,
has been updated to carry out such simulations for the HL-LHC.
Novel materials such as molybdenum graphite have been investigated as
collimator materials, and a novel technique - collimation enhancement via
a hollow electron lens (HEL) - has been studied. Using detailed simulations
the performance and operation of possible collimation upgrades are
explored.

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