Davies, Karen J. and Page, Michael I. (1990) Reaction rates and thermodynamic equilibration of tetrahedral intermediates: the alcoholysis of cephalosporins. Chemical Communications (20). pp. 1448-1450. ISSN 1359-7345

The rate of reaction of cephalosporins with alkoxide ions shows general acid-catalysed inhibition, which is attributed to the trapping of the anionic tetrahedral intermediate (T–) by proton donors to give the thermodynamically more stable neutral intermediate To at a rate which is faster than breakdown of T–.

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