Biundo, Susanne, Aylett, Ruth, Beetz, Michael, Borrajo, Daniel, Cesta, Amedeo, Grant, Tim, McCluskey, T.L., Milani, Alfredo and Verfaille, Gerard (2003) Technological roadmap on AI planning and scheduling. Project Report. European Community under the Information Society Technology Programme, Ulm, Germany.

At the beginning of the new century, Information Technologies had become basic and indispensable
constituents of the production and preparation processes for all kinds of goods and services and
with that are largely influencing both the working and private life of nearly every citizen. This
development will continue and even further grow with the continually increasing use of the Internet
in production, business, science, education, and everyday societal and private undertaking.
Recent years have shown, however, that a dramatic enhancement of software capabilities is required,
when aiming to continuously provide advanced and competitive products and services in all these
fast developing sectors. It includes the development of intelligent systems – systems that are more
autonomous, flexible, and robust than today’s conventional software.
Intelligent Planning and Scheduling is a key enabling technology for intelligent systems. It has
been developed and matured over the last three decades and has successfully been employed for a
variety of applications in commerce, industry, education, medicine, public transport, defense, and
This document reviews the state-of-the-art in key application and technical areas of Intelligent Planning
and Scheduling. It identifies the most important research, development, and technology transfer
efforts required in the coming 3 to 10 years and shows the way forward to meet these challenges in
the short-, medium- and longer-term future.
The roadmap has been developed under the regime of PLANET – the European Network of Excellence
in AI Planning. This network, established by the European Commission in 1998, is the co-ordinating
framework for research, development, and technology transfer in the field of Intelligent Planning and
Scheduling in Europe.
A large number of people have contributed to this document including the members of PLANET non-
European international experts, and a number of independent expert peer reviewers. All of them are
acknowledged in a separate section of this document.
Intelligent Planning and Scheduling is a far-reaching technology. Accepting the challenges and progressing
along the directions pointed out in this roadmap will enable a new generation of intelligent
application systems in a wide variety of industrial, commercial, public, and private sectors.


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