Montenegro, P.A., Neves, S.G.M., Calcada, R., Tanabe, M. and Sogabe, M. (2015) Wheel–rail contact formulation for analyzing the lateral train–structure dynamic interaction. Computers & Structures, 152. pp. 200-214. ISSN 0045-7949

A wheel-rail contact formulation for analyzing the train-structure nonlinear interaction that takes into
account the wheel and rail geometry is proposed. Most of the existing methods treat the contact forces as
external forces, whereas the present formulation uses a finite element to model the behavior in the contact
interface, based on Hertz's theory and Kalker's laws. The equations of motion are complemented with
constraint equations that relate the displacements of the vehicle and structure, being the complete system
solved directly using an optimized algorithm. The formulation is validated with experimental data from a test performed on a rolling stock plant.

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