Parmak, Merle (2015) National Resilience in Multinational Societies. In: Resiliency: Enhancing coping with crisis and terrorism. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - E: Human and Societal Dynamics (119). IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-61499-489-3

Resilience at the level of any system reflects its capacity to manage successfully unexpected pressures without losing its structure and stability. The most generic level of resilience – national resilience – is closely related with shared vision and values in society at the level of the nation. It refers to the ability to maintain national social fabric and cohesion when confronted by threats. During massive transitions, the established boundaries of nation-states and the definition and nature of citizenship are challenged. Risks related to diverse ethnic and religious identities may not be apparent before crises arise. In expanded societies, societal fragmentation poses a threat to national security, highlighting the importance of strategic nation-building and national resilience. Nation-building is influenced by trust and practice of communication between citizens, the state and its sub-communities. In order to mitigate security risks and enhance the capacity of multinational societies to cope with crisis, there is a vital need to develop a conceptual understanding and screening methodology for national resilience.

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