Seetohul, L. N., Maskell, Peter D., De Paoli, G. and Pounder, D. J. (2013) Biomarkers for Illicit Heroin: A Previously Unrecognized Origin of Papaverine. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 37 (2). p. 133. ISSN 0146-4760

In forensic toxicology, the detection of biomarkers for illicit heroin is important in the identification of illicit opiate use. In addition to the active metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine, the opiate codeine and the major impurity acetylcodeine, other biomarkers such as papaverine, noscapine and their metabolites have been proposed (1, 2, 3, 4).