Renshaw, J.A., Finlay, J.E., Tyfa, D. and Ward, Robert D. (2003) Designing for visual influence: an eye tracking study of the usability of graphical management information. In: Human-Computer Interaction -- INTERACT'03. IOS Press, The Netherlands, pp. 144-151.

In this paper we explore how specific visual designs influence eye movement and how eye tracking
can help us to understand this process. We tracked the eye movements of participants whilst they carried out
tasks using two contrasting styles of graph. One followed established design guidelines for facilitating efficient
visual processing; the other flouted them. Traditional performance measures confirmed the superiority of the
guideline-supporting graphs; users also preferred them. Eye tracking measures also indicated the superior
usability of the well designed graphs, but, in addition, provided more specific information about the role of
different graph areas in the assimilation of data. A new way of analyzing eye movements into vertical and
horizontal gazes allowed us to compare the influence of specific design features on eye movement. Results
suggest that certain design features influence eye movement in a predictable way and that eye tracking
techniques are sensitive enough to detect them

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