Kollar, László E., Farzaneh, Masoud and Karev, Anatolij R. (2005) Modeling droplet collision and coalescence in an icing wind tunnel and the influence of these processes on droplet size distribution. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 31 (1). pp. 69-92. ISSN 0301-9322

A theoretical model of a two-phase air/dispersed water spray flow in an icing wind tunnel is presented here. The mutual interactions taking place within the dispersed phase known as binary droplet collisions, as well as gravitational sedimentation are considered. Where large droplets and low air stream velocities are concerned, the effect of gravity on droplet dynamics is considerable. Gravity causes the vertical deflection of droplet trajectories and an increase in liquid water content (LWC) in the bottom half of the wind tunnel. Droplet collision tends to influence the size, trajectory and velocity of droplets thus affecting the characteristics of the flow and, thereby, the formation of ice on the object placed in the wind tunnel. The present model simulates droplet motion and droplet collision in an icing wind tunnel, where it may be observed that bouncing, stable coalescence, or coalescence followed by separation are the possible outcomes of collision. In the theoretical examination, firstly, the effect of gravity on the vertical deflection of droplet trajectories and on the vertical distribution of the LWC near the icing object are taken into account, while droplet collision is disregarded. Then both factors are considered and collision outcome is determined together with the size and velocity of post-collision droplets. The initial droplet size distribution (DSD), as it occurs at the nozzle outlet, is estimated by a curve in accordance with previous experimental results. The DSD is determined theoretically near the icing object, which makes it possible to calculate the median volume diameter and the LWC of the aerosol cloud. The simulation results with regard to the LWC are compared to the experimental results obtained in this research and a satisfactory qualitative coincidence is to be found between them.

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