Ongaro, D., Xie, G., Iwnicki, S., Hemida, H. and Baker, C. (2011) Integration of crosswind forces into train dynamic modelling. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 225 (2). pp. 154-164. ISSN 0954-4097

In this paper a new method is used to calculate unsteady wind loadings acting on a railway vehicle. The method takes input data from wind tunnel testing or from computational fluid dynamics simulations (one example of each is presented in this article), for aerodynamic force and moment coefficients and combines these with fluctuating wind velocity time histories and train speed to produce wind force time histories on the train. This method is fast and efficient and this has allowed the wind forces to be applied to a vehicle dynamics simulation for a long length of track.

Two typical vehicles (one passenger, one freight) have been modelled using the vehicle dynamics simulation package ‘VAMPIRE®’, which allows detailed modelling of the vehicle suspension and wheel—rail contact. The aerodynamic coefficients of the passenger train have been obtained from wind tunnel tests while those of the freight train have been obtained through fluid dynamic computations using large-eddy simulation. Wind loadings were calculated for the same vehicles for a range of average wind speeds and applied to the vehicle models using a user routine within the VAMPIRE package. Track irregularities measured by a track recording coach for a 40 km section of the main line route from London to King's Lynn were used as input to the vehicle simulations.

The simulated vehicle behaviour was assessed against two key indicators for derailment; the Y/Q ratio, which is an indicator of wheel climb derailment, and the Δ Q/Q value, which indicates wheel unloading and therefore potential roll over. The results show that vehicle derailment by either indicator is not predicted for either vehicle for any mean wind speed up to 20 m/s (with consequent gusts up to around 30 m/s). At a higher mean wind speed of 25 m/s derailment is predicted for the passenger vehicle and the unladen freight vehicle (but not for the laden freight vehicle).

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