Daghestani, L., Ward, Robert D., Xu, Zhijie and Al-Nuaim, H. (2010) Virtual reality potential role in numeracy concepts using virtual manipulatives. In: Advances in Computer Science and Engineering: Proceedings of the Sixth IASTED International Conference (ACSE 2010). ACTA Press, Calgary, Canada, pp. 249-255. ISBN 978889868311

The adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies in educational continues to offer new possibilities and challenges to virtual learning environments. VR opens new realms in the field of elementary math and creates effective learning experiences for students especially in numeracy concept using Virtual Manipulatives (VM). This study investigated whether or not students who used 3-Dimensional VM would out-perform students who used 2-Dimensional VM on numeracy concepts exercises (integer addition and subtraction). Results showed that students made significant achievement gains in numeracy concepts using 3-Dimensional VM. The general conclusion is that the VR supported students‟ learning of these concepts.

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