Yumarni, Tri (2017) Gender Maistreaming and Sustainable Post-Disaster Reconstruction: Earthquake Regions in Indonesia. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

Mainstreaming gender within reconstruction is vital to enhance sustainable development in disaster affected regions. Promoting needs and concerns of women and men as well as their experience and knowledge in all process of reconstruction can fulfill sustainable post-disaster reconstruction. Studies have found that failure to address gender issues in post-disaster reconstruction will hinder the opportunities of reconstruction to achieve sustainable development. Yet, many cases of reconstruction activities across developing countries failed to promote gender mainstreaming. This research aims to provide policy-relevant findings regarding strategies for mainstreaming gender with the aim of achieving sustainability in post-earthquake reconstruction in Indonesia.

The case of gender mainstreaming issues at post-disaster reconstruction at Bantul and Sleman Yogyakarta Indonesia were examined. Multiple case studies were applied to achieve the aim and objectives of the study. Accordingly, the sequential mixed-method approach was used with the primary data collection methods are semi-structure interviews and questionnaires. For analyzing the qualitative data, the study chooses content analysis technique along with descriptive and inferential statistics that be used for quantitative data analysis.

This study confirms that women are not only more vulnerable but also have a larger number of vulnerabilities. Women face all dimensions of gender vulnerability during reconstruction. Among the most vulnerable groups are pregnant women, women with disabilities and older women. Despite their vulnerability, women can make a difference during reconstruction through their economic, social and environmental capacities. This study shows that women’s capacities in the economic, social and environmental dimensions not only substantially reduce their families’ and communities’ vulnerability but also enhance the sustainability of their families and communities following an earthquake. This study further shows that gender mainstreaming strategies within sustainable reconstruction should incorporate not only strategies for protecting against gender vulnerabilities but also strategies for promoting gender capacities. Both are fundamental to the achievement of sustainable reconstruction. Further, this study presents key enabling and constraining factors in the mainstreaming gender into sustainable post-disaster reconstruction. These stem from government, non-government organizations, and society. The key enabling factor on the part of government is strong women’s leadership, while the key enabling factor from society is support from active roles for women’s groups. This study shows that adequate technical and financial supports are the key factors from non-government organizations. The key constraining factor from the government is resistance from senior bureaucrats, whereas key constraining factors on

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