Watson, Michael (2004) Offences against the environment: the economics of crime and punishment. Environmental Law and Management, 16 (4). pp. 200-204. ISSN 1067--6058

Fly-tipping and fly-posting were recently investigated by
a sub-committee of the House of Commons Environmental
Audit Committee.1 They share important features.
Although both occur for a variety of reasons, they are
invariably the result of conscious and deliberate acts.
Unlike, for example, unauthorized discharges of pollution
into rivers or the atmosphere, they cannot occur by
accident. Strict liability is irrelevant. The perpetrators are
usually to blame for their deeds. Perhaps more importantly,
in both cases there are often strong financial incentives
to break the law.2 They therefore provide useful case studies
on the economics of environmental crime and punishment.
An examination of these offences can give valuable insights
as to why businesses choose to operate within, or outside,
the law.

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