Pan, C.-T., Hinks, J. A., Ramasse, Q. M., Greaves, Graeme, Bangert, U., Donnelly, S. E. and Haigh, S. J. (2014) In-situ observation and atomic resolution imaging of the ion irradiation induced amorphisation of graphene. Scientific Reports, 4. p. 6334. ISSN 2045-2322

Ion irradiation has been observed to induce a macroscopic flattening and in-plane shrinkage of graphene sheets without a complete loss of crystallinity. Electron diffraction studies performed during simultaneous in-situ ion irradiation have allowed identification of the fluence at which the graphene sheet loses long-range order. This approach has facilitated complementary ex-situ investigations, allowing the first atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images of ion-irradiation induced graphene defect structures together with quantitative analysis of defect densities using Raman spectroscopy.

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