Etheridge, Stephen (2012) Brass Bands in the Southern Pennines, 1857-1914: The Ethos of Rational Recreation and Perceptions of Working-Class Respectability. In: Class, Culture and Community: New Perspectives in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century British Labour History. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, pp. 37-54. ISBN 978-1-4438-4064-4

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In 1857, Manchester held the largest British fine-arts exhibition to date. In all, one and a half million people visited the exhibition. Many employers arranged for their workers to visit. Titus Salt brought 2,500 workers from his textile works.

Salt created a spectacle as he entered the gallery: striding in front of his brass band, who were leading the mill’s employees into the exhibition. Salt was using his band - his employees- as a statement of his status in the country. The reasons for this theatrical act are the influences behind this chapter. This chapter examines how rational recreation, perceived as a top down method of social control, helped reinforce this a musical working-class identity that was created by brass bands. How did bands take rational recreation,and reinforce their own cultural, and class identity

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