Lucas, Gary and Mishra, Rakesh (2005) Measurement of bubble velocity components in a swirling gas–liquid pipe flow using a local four-sensor conductance probe. Measurement Science and Technology, 16 (3). pp. 749-758. ISSN 0957-0233

This paper presents a novel technique for measuring the local axial, radial and azimuthal velocity components of the gas in bubbly gas–liquid flows using a local four-sensor conductance probe. A mathematical model is presented showing how the velocity vector of a gas bubble can be calculated from seven time intervals taken from the output signals from each of the four conductance sensors located within the probe. The paper goes on to describe the construction of a local four-sensor probe and the associated electronic measurement circuitry. Results are presented showing the distributions of the mean local axial, radial and azimuthal gas velocity components in vertical, bubbly gas–liquid flows, both with and without swirl. These results were obtained using the four-sensor probe in a vertical 80 mm diameter pipe into which a swirl generator could be installed. Additional results are presented showing the local gas volume fraction distribution, also obtained from the probe, in bubbly gas–liquid flows with and without swirl. It was found, as expected, that the presence of swirl caused a significant increase in the magnitude of the measured azimuthal velocity of the gas, particularly at the pipe walls. It was also found that, at a comparatively high water flow rate, the presence of swirl caused the gas bubbles to preferentially accumulate at the centre of the pipe.

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