Yasin, Naveed (2011) A Conceptual Review of Ethnic and Immigrant Pakistani Entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom. In: 2nd International Conference on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, The European Council of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 24-27 February 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus. (Unpublished)

Based on existing literature, this paper provides a conceptual review of ethnic entrepreneurship with a specific focus on ethnic Pakistani start-up motives and so will provide an update of the advancements made in the area of ethnic minority entrepreneurship (EMEs). Ethnic Pakistanis are leading the entrepreneurship and self-employment trends in Britain and so there is the need to develop an in-depth study of this ethnic group, to understand the propensity, key drivers and theory supporting their attitudes towards entrepreneurship. An exploration will be made towards highlighting two key areas: 1) Cultural Factors and 2) External Factors. This paper is part of a doctoral research project and will specifically focus on a variety of Push and Pull factors such as culture/religion, social networks and capital, racism and discrimination, sojourners and settlers, ethnic enclaves, and regulations of the host-nation . An exploration of these will provide a general overview of key elements which are being discussed in the area of ethnic entrepreneurship. For example, the Push and Pull theory highlighting positive factors such as: independence, financial freedom, and flexibility of work will be explored alongside negative factors such as: discrimination, inability to find suitable employment, blocked upward mobility, unemployment etc.

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