Shoyele, Sunday (2008) Engineering Protein Particles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery. In: Drug Delivery Systems. Methods in Molecular Biology, 437 . Humana Press, New York, USA, pp. 149-160. ISBN 978-1-59745-210-6

Pulmonary delivery of proteins requires particles for delivery to be in the aerodynamic size range 1–5 μm for deep lung deposition. However, the traditional particle size reduction technique of jet-milling normally used for inhalation is not suitable for processing these protein particles because of their lability brought about by the weak physical interactions making up their higher order structures. Advanced techniques such as spray drying, spray freeze drying and the use of supercritical fluid technology have been developed to produce particles in the suitable size range and morphology for deep long deposition without altering the native conformation of these biomolecules. Judicious use of excipients and operating conditions are some of the factors needed for a successful particle design.

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