Shoyele, Sunday and Cawthorne, Simon (2006) Particle engineering techniques for inhaled biopharmaceuticals. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 58 (9-10). pp. 1009-1029. ISSN 0169409X

Formulation of biopharmaceuticals for pulmonary delivery is faced with the challenge of producing particles with the optimal properties for deep lung deposition without altering the native conformation of these molecules. Traditional techniques such as milling are continuously being improved while newer and more advanced techniques such as spray drying, spray freeze drying and supercritical fluid technology are being developed so as to optimize pulmonary delivery of biopharmaceuticals. While some of these techniques are quite promising, some are harsh and impracticable. Method scale up, cost-effectiveness and safety issues are important factors to be considered in the choice of a technique. This paper reviews the presently developed techniques for particle engineering biopharmaceuticals

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