Gallagher, Bernard (2009) International and Internet Child Sexual Abuse: Typologies, Extent, Nature, and Policy and Practice Implications. In: 7th Annual BASPCAN (British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse) Conference, 13th - 16th September 2009, Swansea, Wales. (Unpublished)

To establish the typology, extent, nature, and
policy and practice implications of cases of
child sexual abuse (CSA) that have an
international dimension or which involve the
internet, and are linked to the UK.
National postal questionnaire survey among
all police services in the UK and HM
Revenue and Customs (HMRC), interviews
with police officers and search of police files
concerning specific cases of international and
internet CSA, policy-focused interviews with
representatives from the police, HMRC,
government, industry and academia, and
searches of police crime reporting and
recording systems.
There were three major types of international
CSA and three major types of internet CSA,
but each of these tended to comprise many
sub-types of case. Known cases were
relatively rare but with one major exception in
respect of cases involving internet-based
child abuse images, which were far more
common. International and internet CSA
cases were, in some aspects, similar to CSA
cases in general. However, there were some
important differences in terms of victim and
offender characteristics, and offender modus
operandi. Although there have been a
number of policy and practice developments
in this area, there remains many fundamental
weaknesses in the response to these cases.
Known cases of international and internet
CSA are quite diverse but relatively rare.
They may share some characteristics with
cases of CSA in general but can also be quite
distinct. There are many shortcomings in the
policy and practice response to international
and internet CSA.

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