Callingham, Andrew Edward (2007) Spontaneous music : the first generation British free improvisers. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

The British free improvisation scene originated in London and Sheffield during the
mid 1960s. In groups such as AMM, the Spontaneous Music Ensemble and Joseph
Holbrooke, a distinctive and ambitious musicality developed that still occupies most
of its protagonists forty years later.

Marked stylistic contrasts developed within the genre, notably the `atomistic' and
`laminar' methods of interaction. Nonetheless, a consistency of principle and practice
was also apparent that defined British free improvisation as unique. In some respects
the genre resembled its German, Dutch and American counterparts, and also the jazz
and classical avant-gardes that had inspired them. Both conceptually and practically,
however, clear differences remained.

The British free improvisers refined a method and an aesthetic of musical creativity,
which suggested an intimate perspective and a detailed analysis of that which we
accept as `music'. Its techniques and results were unconventional, but remained
consistent with music's defining concepts and experiences. As such, British free
improvisation suggested a more inclusive model of musicality than is common, and
implied a broad critique of the cultural values that define `music' at all. Though the
free improvisers themselves did not explicitly state the connection, their work may be
viewed in the context of Deconstruction: the post-structuralist analytical strategy
associated with philosopher Jacques Derrida.

British free improvisation culminated from innovations within the twentieth century
avant-garde. Referencing styles such as atonality and free jazz, it challenged the
aesthetic, technical and hierarchical standards of Western tradition in a form that was
striking and extreme, but also of logical development and focus. Free improvisation
owed explicit debt to a variety of other musics; its most singular achievement
however, was the redefinition of `rhythm' by which it disguised this fact.

The music of the first generation British free improvisers is reliant upon precise
conceptual and practical execution. But though this has enabled the genre to be
musically innovative, in the long term it has also become a logical problem. With
British free improvisation as its subject, the scrutiny of Deconstruction reveals
significant discrepancies between what `free improvisation' implies and what it
actually represents.

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