Armitage, Rachel, Joyce, Chris and Monchuk, Leanne (2018) Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) and retail crime: Exploring offender perspectives on risk and protective factors in the design and layout of retail environments. In: Retail Crime: International Evidence and Prevention. Crime Prevention and Security Management . Palgrave, UK, pp. 123-154. ISBN 9783319730646

There is little doubt that the design of the built environment influences offender decision-making. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a crime reduction approach that aims to prevent crime though the design (pre-build) or manipulation (post-build) of the built environment. CPTED is based upon a set of principles that include movement control, surveillance, defensible space and physical security, and research (see Armitage, 2013 for overview) has demonstrated the effectiveness of CPTED in reducing crimes such as burglary within the residential environment. This research explores the extent to which CPTED (and other design related) measures can be used to reduce shoplifting within a retail environment – namely two major supermarket chains in England. The results reveal that the principles of CPTED are relevant within the retail environment and that offenders are deterred by these features, in particular, where these principles result in an immediate (as opposed to delayed) detection or apprehension. Whilst the research is conducted in supermarkets within England, the conclusions are internationally relevant and can be transferred to many different retail environments.

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