Gillibrand, Warren P. and Holdich, Phil (2017) Assessment of retinopathy. In: Principles of Diabetes Care: evidence-based management for health professionals. Quay Books, Bournemouth, UK, pp. 217-226. ISBN 9781856425100

This chapter concerns diabetic retinopathy – a serious microvascular
complication of diabetes, which can have severe debilitating effects on lifestyle,
work and relationships. In the UK, diabetic retinopathy remains a major cause
of visual impairment and registered blindness in people under 65 years of age,
but following the successful implementation of a national screening programme,
it is no longer the main cause of blindness (Liew et al, 2014; Public Health
England, 2014a).
To be effective, treatment for retinopathy needs to be given at the
appropriate stage of the disease; usually before symptoms have developed.
Hence, it is important to screen for the signs of retinopathy before they
progress and at the correct annual or bi-annual interval (see case study 17.1)
(Scanlon et al, 2015).

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