Edwards, Ceiridwen J., MacHugh, David E., Dobney, Keith M., Martin, Louise, Russell, Nerissa, Horwitz, Liora K., McIntosh, Susan K., MacDonald, Kevin C., Helmer, Daniel, Tresset, Anne, Vigne, Jean-Denis and Bradley, Daniel G. (2004) Ancient DNA analysis of 101 cattle remains: limits and prospects. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31 (6). pp. 695-710. ISSN 0305-4403

A total of 101 cattle teeth and bones from 13 archaeological sites between 1000 to 9000 years old were assessed for the presence of verifiable mitochondrial sequences. It was possible to reproducibly amplify and sequence mitochondrial control region DNA extracted from twelve of the samples. The results were compared with published extant data by constructing phylogenetic networks. The sequences obtained from the cattle specimens were either identical to the reference sequence for modern cattle or closely related to it. They included three sequences not previously documented. The network analysis of the ancient data highlights the proximity of the ancient DNA cattle sequences to modern Near Eastern, European and African Bos taurus, as well as regional continuity.

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