Astin, Felicity, Jones, Kenneth and Thompson, David R. (2005) Prevalence and patterns of anxiety and depression in patients undergoing elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 34 (6). pp. 393-401. ISSN 0147-9563


The use of elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as a treatment for coronary heart disease is increasing. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence and patterns of anxiety and depression experienced by patients undergoing and recovering from this procedure. Anxiety and depression are factors known to negatively influence recovery after a cardiac event.


The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the levels of anxiety and depression reported by patients pre- and postelective PTCA, and (2) determine associations evident between anxiety and depression and the sociodemographic and clinical variables of gender, marital status, history of acute myocardial infarction, and attendance at cardiac rehabilitation.


In this descriptive, repeated-measures investigation, patients (n = 140) were requested to complete the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) at three time points: 0(1) before admission for elective PTCA (T1); (2) 6 to 8 weeks (T2) after PTCA; and (3) 6 to 8 months (T3) after PTCA.


A typical participant was male (75%), of European ethnicity (90%), aged 62 years (standard deviation = 10.7) with single or double vessel disease, and had attended cardiac rehabilitation in the past. At T1, 16% of men and 24% of women had state anxiety scores comparable to those experienced by neuropsychiatric patients. Trait anxiety scores remained relatively constant over time; higher scores at T1 were associated with past acute myocardial infarction. CDS scores at T2 and T3 were significantly lower than those at T1. However, an unexpected increase in CDS scores occurred at T3, compared with T2. At T3, 14% of men and 10% of women were depressed, relative to T1

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