Bent, Jacquelyn (2013) Psychopathic traits in community samples: An examination of the relationship between psychopathic traits, disgust sensitivity, neurocognitive dysfunction and consensual sadomasochism in subclinical samples. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

Psychopathy is currently conceptualised as a personality disorder that results in cognitive, neurological, affective deficits, behavioural problems, criminal behaviour and recidivism. Psychopathy is most often associated with the offending population, and as consequence, psychopathy based research has been dominated by examination of the male, offender psychopathy. Consequently, what is currently conceptualised regarding psychopathy is biased toward this particular psychopathy sub-type. Recent research provides evidence that psychopathy is heterogeneous, dimensional construct found in a varied populations and age groups. The deficits so often associated with psychopathy may vary based on the sub-type of psychopathy this includes subclinical subtypes of psychopathy that seem to be present. Consequently, what is understood about psychopathy including the assumptions regarding affective, neurocognitive, deficits, higher risk of violence, including sexual violence, and other assumptions may be dependent upon the sub-type of psychopathy or preponderance of psychopathic traits present.
External correlates associated with psychopathy have been examined in non-clinical samples to examine how aversive emotion, disgust, and atypical sexual fantasy and practices, in the form of consensual sadomasochism may be related to psychopathic traits as measured by the PPI-R.

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