Koutinas, Apostolis A., Wang, R., Campbell, Grant M. and Webb, C. (2005) Developing viable biorefineries for the production of biodegradable microbial plastics and various added-value products. In: 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering Proceedings. World Congress of Chemical Engineering. ISBN 0852954948

Petrochemically derived plastics may have provided a very light, strong, and economical material for day-to-day use for over 50 yr but their extensive use and difficulties with disposal have caused a cumulative environmental burden. Replacement of such plastics could be accomplished by eco-friendly biodegradable materials with similar properties, such as the biologically produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). The development of a biorefinery for the production of PHB and other added-value side-products based solely on wheat bioconversion was presented. Bioprocess economics and overall non-renewable energy requirements were studied to minimize and restructure conventional upstream processing, bioconversion, and downstream processing.