Bamford, David, Forrester, Paul, Dehe, Benjamin and Leese, Rebecca (2015) Partial and Iterative Lean Implementation: Two Case Studies. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 35 (5). pp. 702-727. ISSN 0144-3577

Purpose of this paper
This paper explores the implementation of lean within two contrasting UK based organizations; a food manufacturer and a healthcare organization. The different contexts provide insight to the strategic desire for efficiency gains and tactical issues and challenges of lean execution and implementation.
Design / methodology / approach
The research questions developed from the review of the literature were tested using evidence from field-based, action research within a food manufacturer and a National Health Service organization. The reported contrasting case studies contribute to the longer term debate on the adoption and adaptation of lean-based „best practice‟ within organizations.
There are three primary findings: i) that the adoption of lean provides a strategic benefit, as well as providing a basis for a strategy of operational change; ii) that partial, as opposed to full, adoption of lean occurs due to external organizational constraints, such as demand patterns, supplier unreliability, little expertise in deploying change programmes, etc.; and iii) that a company will balance the adoption of the lean ideology against the financial costs and operational risks incurred in full adoption.
Practical implications
The conclusions drawn add substantially to the on-going commentaries on aspects of lean, and develop interesting questions for future research regards the developed „Cycles of Lean Implementation‟ concept.
What is original / value of paper
The conclusion proposes that partial implementation of lean does not necessarily represent a conscious organizational choice, or any lack of conviction, but is representative of external constraints on the organization. This complements previous commentaries on appropriate strategies and develops interesting questions for future research into operational efficiency.

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