Wong, Peter Chi Chung and Bamford, Colin (2012) A Study of Market Structure in Liner Shipping Under the Influence of Government Policies. In: Proceedings of 19th International Business Research Conference. Working Papers Series, 2012 . SSRN Social Science Research Network, Melbourne, Australia. ISBN 978-1-922069-13-9

The peculiar operational mode and involvement of international carriers
granted liner operators special exemption from Anti-trust regulations
globally. The changes of policy from USA and EU in recent years forbidden
liner operators to form Liner Conference (LC) which seems to possess
oligopoly power in the trade. This paper use the freight rate to verified the
change of Government policies cannot stop the liner operators to form in
their natural formation - Liner Conference.

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