Rogers, David W., Carr, Martin and Pomiankowski, Andrew (2003) Male genes: X-pelled or X-cluded? BioEssays, 25 (8). pp. 739-741. ISSN 0265-9247

Two recent studies by Parisi et al.1 and Ranz et al.,2 catalogue sex differences in gene expression across the whole genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Both report striking associations of sex-biased gene expression with the X chromosome. Genes with male-biased expression are depauperate on the X chromosome, whereas genes with female-biased expression show weaker evidence of being in excess. A number of evolutionary hypotheses for the expulsion or exclusion of male-biased genes from the X chromosome have been suggested. None is entirely consistent with the available evidence.