Liu, Yanwen, Bailey, Paul, Noakes, Timothy C. Q., Thompson, George E., Skeldon, Peter and Alexander, Morgan R. (2004) Chemical environment of copper at the surface of a CuAl2 model alloy: XPS, MEIS and TEM analyses. Surface and Interface Analysis, 36 (4). pp. 339-346. ISSN 0142-2421

Air-formed oxide on a CuAl2 model alloy is shown to be free of copper species, with copper enriching in the alloy. With thickening of the oxide by anodizing, copper enriches further to a critical concentration at which its oxidation proceeds with incorporation of Cu(II) species into the film. Such species migrate more rapidly through the film than aluminium species. Incorporation of copper species is associated with generation of oxygen gas within the film and subsequent film rupture is due to release of the gas. Reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) species during XPS analysis is characterized and the accelerating role of charge neutralizing is highlighted.