Kola, Susanna, Walsh, Jane C., Mylotte, Michael and Molloy, Maura (2007) Impact of pain on postoperative adjustment in patients undergoing an invasive medical procedure. In: Irish Pain Society Annual Conference 2007, October 2007, Dublin. (Unpublished)

Invasive medical procedures are considered very stressful and anxiety evoking by patients. Anxiety in turn affects acute pain, such that heightened anxiety reduces pain threshold, which may limit a physician’s ability to complete a procedure.
Anxiety and pain experienced by patients prior to and during medical procedures also impact negatively on postoperative outcomes, e.g., post-operative pain, poorer recovery, increased analgesic use, increased physical complaints, and reduced immune function (e.g., Kain et al., 2000; Kielcolt-Glaser et al., 1998; Osborn & Sandler, 2004).

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