Crallan, R.A., Georgopoulos, Nikolaos T. and Southgate, Jennifer (2006) Experimental models of human bladder carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis, 27 (3). pp. 374-381. ISSN 0143-3334

Bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the UK, yet human bladder carcinogenesis remains poorly understood and the response of bladder tumours to radio- and chemo-therapy is unpredictable. The aims of this article are to review human bladder carcinogenesis and appraise the different in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been developed to study the process. The review considers how in vitro models based on normal human urothelial (NHU) cells can be applied to human bladder cancer research. We conclude that recent advances in NHU cell culture offer novel approaches for defining urothelial tissue-specific responses to genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and elucidating the role of specific genes involved in the mechanisms of bladder carcinogenesis and malignant progression.

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