Baxter, Nicholas J. and Page, Michael I. (1997) Evidence for a trigonal bipyramidal intermediate during nucleophilic substitution at a sulfonyl centre and for a sulfonylium cation in the acid catalysed reaction. Chemical Communications (21). pp. 2037-2038. ISSN 1359-7345

The rate of alkaline hydrolysis of a substituted -sultam shows a dominant term second-order in hydroxide ion, clearly indicating the reversible formation of a monoanionic trigonal bipyramidal intermediate; substituent effects and kinetic parameters for the acid catalysed hydrolysis are indicative of the formation of a sulfonylium ion intermediate.

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