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Just fighting to survive: loyalist paramilitary politics and the Progressive Unionist Party

McAuley, James W. (2004) Just fighting to survive: loyalist paramilitary politics and the Progressive Unionist Party. Terrorism and Political Violence, 16 (3). pp. 522-543. ISSN 0954-6553

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Throughout the contemporary period, Unionists and Loyalists in Northern Ireland have reacted in contradictory ways to the peace process. This article highlights some of the key political and social dynamics within loyalism. In particular, it considers the positioning of the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and their linked political representatives in the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP). The response of the PUP to the peace process has revealed several important tensions within unionism. These include the notions that Loyalists can no longer be assured that the UK government will maintain the Union; expressions of class and gendered identities; a lack of trust of mainstream unionism; and, sectarianism, which although it remains a key element within Loyalist identity, is by no means its only dimension. Finally, the article outlines the broader construction of Loyalist and Unionist ideologies, and positions the PUP within broader politics of contemporary unionism

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: UoA 39 (Politics and International Studies) Copyright © Taylor and Francis, Inc., 2004
Subjects: J Political Science > JA Political science (General)
J Political Science > JF Political institutions (General)
Schools: School of Human and Health Sciences
School of Human and Health Sciences > Centre for Research in the Social Sciences
School of Human and Health Sciences > Academy for British and Irish Studies
Related URLs:
References: 1. Reproduced in O. Byrne (ed), State of Play: The Theatre and Cultural Identity in 20th Century Ulster (Belfast: The Linen Hall Library 2001) p.69.2. See L. Dowds, ‘Public Attitudes and Identity’ in Nations and Regions: The Dynamics of Devolution Quarterly Monitoring Programme (November 2002) pp.167; and J.W. McAuley, ‘Unionism’s Last Stand? Contemporary Unionist Politics and Identity in Northern Ireland’, The Global Review of Ethnopolitics 3=1 (2003) pp.6075. 3. On 5 January 2004, three newly elected Ulster Unionist Party MLAs ‘defected’ to the DUP increasing the DUP representation in any new assembly to 33. See ‘Donaldson announces DUP move’, BBC News, pr=fr==1=hi=northern ireland=3368223.stm [downloaded 5 January 2004]. 4. Progressive Unionist Party, Election Manifesto (Belfast: PUP 2003). 5. See, for example, D. Boulton, The UVF 196673: An Anatomy of Loyalist Rebellion (Dublin: Torc Books 1973); J. Cusack and H. McDonald, UVF (Poolbeg: Dublin 1997); J.W. 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Ward, Press Statement: Free Presbyterian Church Moral Committee in a Moral Dilemma (Belfast: PUP 6 February 1998). 45. Progressive Unionist Party (note 32). 46. Shankill Think Tank, A New Beginning (Newtownabbey: Island Publications 1995). 47. Royal Ulster Constabulary, Chief Constable’s Annual Report, 19992000 (Belfast: RUC 2000); and R. Wilson and R. Wilford, Northern Ireland: A Route to Stability? (ESRC Research Programme on Devolution & Constitutional Change: no date) p.5. 48. Police Service of Northern Ireland, Report of the Chief Constable 200203 (Belfast: PSNI 2003) 49. See S. Walker, ‘Paramilitaries Reap £18m From Rackets’, BBC website, ireland (downloaded 2 July 2002). 50. See R. Eames, ‘Loyalists Must End Criminality’, fr==1=hi=northern ireland=3021452.stm (downloaded 26 June 2003); A. 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There are various occasional publications supporting the LVF such as, The Volunteer; Leading The Way; and The Wright View. 54. B. Walker, ‘LVF Threat to Trimble During Poll’, Belfast Telegraph, 30 April 2003. 55. Gillespie (note 24) p.268. 56. C. Persic and S. Bloomer, The Feud and the Fury. . .The Response of the Community Sector to the Shankill Feud, August 2000 (Belfast: Springfield Intercommunity Development Project no date). 57. D. Ervine, ‘Loyalist Confidence in Decline’ BBC website northern ireland (downloaded 10 May 2002). 58. David Ervine, cited in Combat (January 2003) p.4. 59. D. McKittrick, ‘What Makes the Loyalists Angry is Seeing the Other Side Doing So Well’, The Independent, 17 January 2002. 60. D. Murray, Protestant Perceptions of the Peace Process in Northern Ireland (University of Limerick: Centre for Peace and Development Studies 2000). 61. M. Hall, An Uncertain Future: An Exploration by Protestant Community Activists (Newtownabbey: Island Publications 2002) p.3. 62. See, for example, reports in The Guardian (4 January 2002 and 7 January 2003). 63. See P. Shirlow, ‘Segregation in Belfast Since the Peace Process’, Paper presented to the Royal Geographical Society Conference, Belfast, 5 January 2002; ‘Fear, Mobility and Living in the Ardoyne and Upper Ardoyne Communities’, Mapping the Spaces of Fear Research Team, University of Ulster, uk=issues=community=survey.htm (downloaded 10 June 2002); and ‘Who Fears to Speak’: Fear, Mobility, and Ethno-Sectarianism in the Two ‘Ardoynes’, The Global Review of Ethnopolitics 3=1 (2003) pp.7691. 64. See S. Dunn and V. Morgan, Protestant Alienation in Northern Ireland. A Preliminary Survey (Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of Ulster 1994); and Shirlow and McGovern (note 11). 65. See S. Breen, ‘Survey Shows Unionists Divided Over Talks’, The Irish Times, 11 September 1997; and M. Hall, At the Crossroads? (Newtownabbey: Island Pamphlets 1998). 66. The survey, conducted by Colin Irwin of the Institute of Irish Studies at Queen’s University, Belfast, was first published in Belfast Telegraph on 10 January 1998. 67. Dowds (note 2). 68. For fuller results, see C. Irwin, ‘Devolution and the State of the Northern Ireland Peace Process’, The Global Review of Ethnopolitics 2=34 (2003) pp.7191. 69. News Letter, 23 February 1995. 70. Orange Standard, 1 April 1999. 71. Democratic Unionist Party, Fair Deal Manifesto 2003 (Belfast: DUP 2003). 72. Cited in Andersonstown News, 26 June 1996, p.10.73. McAuley ‘Unionism’s last Stand?’ (note 2). 74. CAIN Web Service ‘Assembly Election (NI): Results 26 November 2003’, http:== (downloaded 4 December 2003). 75. See, for example, Ballymacarret Think Tank, Puppets No More (Newtownabbey: Island Pamphlets 1999); M. Hall, Beyond the Fife and Drum (Belfast: Island Pamphlets 1995); and Reinforcing Powerlessness: The Hidden Dimension to the Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’ (Belfast: Island Pamphlets 1996). 76. See D. McKittrick, ‘Trust Drains Away’, The Independent, 6 October 2002; and B. White, ‘Unionists Believe Good Friday Agreement is All Bad’, The Herald, 25 July 2002.
Depositing User: Sara Taylor
Date Deposited: 24 Sep 2007
Last Modified: 28 Aug 2021 23:29


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