Pisauro, Andrea, Fouragnan, Elsa, Retzler, Chris and Philiastides, Marios (2017) Neural correlates of evidence accumulation during value-based decisions revealed via simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Nature Communications. ISSN 2041-1723

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Current computational accounts posit that, in simple binary choices, humans accumulate
evidence in favour of the different alternatives before committing to a decision. Neural
correlates of this accumulating activity have been found during perceptual decisions in
parietal and prefrontal cortex; however the source of such activity in value-based choices
remains unknown. Here we use simultaneous EEG–fMRI and computational modelling to
identify EEG signals reflecting an accumulation process and demonstrate that the within- and
across-trial variability in these signals explains fMRI responses in posterior-medial frontal
cortex. Consistent with its role in integrating the evidence prior to reaching a decision, this
region also exhibits task-dependent coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and
the striatum, brain areas known to encode the subjective value of the decision alternatives.
These results further endorse the proposition of an evidence accumulation process
during value-based decisions in humans and implicate the posterior-medial frontal cortex in
this process.

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