Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Narcissism normalisation: tourism influences and sustainability implications

Canavan, Brendan (2017) Narcissism normalisation: tourism influences and sustainability implications. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. ISSN 0966-9582

PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (637kB) | Preview


The concept of narcissism normalisation suggests that individuals and societies are becoming more narcissistic due to various cultural influences. Tourism is reviewed here as one such possible influence. Exploitative, entitled and exhibitionistic tendencies associated with narcissism are wellestablished
in tourism. Yet tourism is also an intimate, communal and satisfying activity which may counteract narcissism. Increases in narcissism
have significant implications from a sustainable tourism perspective. Narcissism is associated with exploitative and entitled behaviours that over time cause significant harm to those people and landscapes that
come into contact with. Narcissism appears to be incompatible with principles of sustainability and the challenges this poses for the industry are reviewed, while the opportunities are also explored. There are signs that narcissism, particularly those aspects relating to exhibitionism, can be
co-opted to benefit sustainable development.

▼ Jump to Download Statistics
Item Type: Article
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
Schools: Huddersfield Business School
Huddersfield Business School > Global Advances in Marketing Branding and Innovation
Related URLs:
References: Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W., & Kashy, D. A. (2010). What does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory really measure?. Assessment, 1073191110382845. Almeyda, A., Broadbent, E., Wyman, M. and Durham, W. (2010) Ecotourism impacts in the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. International journal of tourism research, 12: 803-819. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Personality disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. Aramberri, J. (2010). Modern mass tourism (Vol. 14). Emerald Group Publishing. Ateljevic, I. (2000). Circuits of tourism: stepping beyond the production/consumption dichotomy. Tourism Geographies, 2(4), 369-388. Banjanin, N., Banjanin, N., Dimitrijevic, I., & Pantic, I. (2015). Relationship between internet use and depression: Focus on physiological mood oscillations, social networking and online addictive behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 308-312. Bergman, S. M., Fearrington, M. E., Davenport, S. W., & Bergman, J. Z. (2011). Millennials, narcissism, and social networking: What narcissists do on social networking sites and why. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(5), 706-711. Bergman, J. Z., Westerman, J. W., Bergman, S. M., Westerman, J., & Daly, J. P. (2013). Narcissism, materialism, and environmental ethics in business students. Journal of Management Education, 1052562913488108. Boorstin, D. (1964). A guide to pseudo-events in America. New York: Harper and Row. Bosangit, C., Hibbert, S., & McCabe, S. (2015). “If I was going to die I should at least be having fun”: Travel blogs, meaning and tourist experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 55, 1-14. Bramwell, B. (2015). Theoretical activity in sustainable tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 54, 204-218. Brown, L. (2013). Tourism: A catalyst for existential authenticity. Annals of Tourism Research, 40, 176-190. Brummelman, E., Thomaes, S., Nelemans, S. A., De Castro, B. O., Overbeek, G., & Bushman, B. J. (2015). Origins of narcissism in children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(12), 3659-3662. Buckley, R. (2012). Sustainable tourism: Research and reality. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 528-546. Budeanu, A. (2007). Sustainable tourist behaviour–a discussion of opportunities for change. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(5), 499-508. Buffardi LE, Campbell WK (2008) Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(10): 1303–1314. Cai, H., Kwan, V. S. Y., & Sedikides, C. (2012). A sociocultural approach to narcissism: The case of modern china. European Journal of Personality, 26(5), 529-535. Campbell, W. K., Foster, C. A., & Finkel, E. J. (2002). Does self-love lead to love for others?: A story of narcissistic game playing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 83(2), 340. Campbell, W. K., Campbell, S. M., Hoffman, B. J., & Marchisio, G. (2011). Narcissism in organizational contexts. Human Resource Management Review, 21(4), 268-284. Canavan, B. (2013). Send more tourists! Stakeholder perceptions of a tourism industry in late stage decline: the case of the Isle of Man. International Journal of tourism research, 15(2), 105-121. Canavan, B. (2016). Tourism culture: Nexus, characteristics, context and sustainability. Tourism Management, 53, 229-243. Carpenter, C. J. (2012). Narcissism on Facebook: Self-promotional and anti-social behavior. Personality and individual differences, 52(4), 482-486. Chan, L. S., & Tsang, H. W. E. (2014). “Hey, Look at My Body!”: An Exploratory Study of Body Display on Facebook among Hong Kong Young Adults. International Journal of Interactive Communication Systems and Technologies (IJICST), 4(1), 31-46. Chatterjee, A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2007). It's all about me: Narcissistic chief executive officers and their effects on company strategy and performance.Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(3), 351-386. Chen, L. J., & Chen, J. S. (2011). The motivations and expectations of international volunteer tourists: A case study of “Chinese Village Traditions”. Tourism Management, 32(2), 435-442. Cluley, R., & Dunne, S. (2012). From commodity fetishism to commodity narcissism. Marketing Theory, 12(3), 251-265. Cohen, E. (1982). Marginal paradises: Bungalow tourism on the islands of Southern Thailand. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 189-228. Cohen, E. (2003). Backpacking: Diversity and change. Journal of tourism and cultural change, 1(2), 95-110. Cohen, S. A. (2011). Lifestyle travellers: Backpacking as a way of life.Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1535-1555. Cohen, E., & Cohen, S. A. (2012). Current sociological theories and issues in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(4), 2177-2202. Dann, G. M. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of tourism research, 4(4), 184-194. Dann, G. M. (1981). Tourist motivation an appraisal. Annals of tourism research, 8(2), 187-219. Davis, A. (2016). Experiential places or places of experience? Place identity and place attachment as mechanisms for creating festival environment. Tourism Management, 55, 49-61. Debevec, K., Schewe, C. D., Madden, T. J., & Diamond, W. D. (2013). Are today's Millennials splintering into a new generational cohort? Maybe!. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 12(1), 20-31. Decrop, A., & Snelders, D. (2004). Planning the summer vacation: An adaptable process. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 1008-1030. DeWall, C. N., Pond Jr, R. S., Campbell, W. K., & Twenge, J. M. (2011). Tuning in to psychological change: Linguistic markers of psychological traits and emotions over time in popular US song lyrics. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5(3), 200. Dieke, P. U. C. (2003). Tourism in Africa’s economic development: policy implications. Management decision 41(3): 287-298. Diken, B., & Laustsen, C. B. (2004). Sea, sun, sex and the discontents of pleasure. Tourist Studies, 4(2), 99-114. Dinhopl, A., & Gretzel, U. (2016). Selfie-taking as touristic looking. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, 126-139. Dolnicar, S., Yanamandram, V., & Cliff, K. (2012). The contribution of vacations to quality of life. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), 59-83. Duchon, D., and Burns, M. (2008). Organizational narcissism. Organizational Dynamics, 37(4), 354-364. Edensor, T. (2000). Staging tourism: Tourists as performers. Annals of tourism Research, 27(2), 322-344. Fennell, D. A. (2008). Responsible tourism: A Kierkegaardian interpretation. Tourism Recreation Research, 33(1), 3-12. Fox, J., & Rooney, M. C. (2015). The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 161-165. Freud, S. (1975). Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (No. 770). WW Norton & Company. Fullilove, M. T. (1996). Psychiatric implications of displacement: contributions from the psychology of place. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(12), 1516. Gentile, B., Twenge, J. M., Freeman, E. C., & Campbell, W. K. (2012). The effect of social networking websites on positive self-views: An experimental investigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1929-1933. Giddens, A., 1991. Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Polity, Cambridge. Gnoth, J. (1997). Tourism motivation and expectation formation. Annals of Tourism research, 24(2), 283-304. Go, F. M., & Govers, R. (2000). Integrated quality management for tourist destinations: a European perspective on achieving competitiveness. Tourism Management, 21(1), 79-88. Golomb, E. (1995). Trapped in The Mirror. Harper Collins. Grimm, K. E., & Needham, M. D. (2011). Moving beyond the “I” in motivation: Attributes and perceptions of conservation volunteer tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 0047287511418367. Hardy, A. L., & Beeton, R. J. (2001). Sustainable tourism or maintainable tourism: Managing resources for more than average outcomes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9(3), 168-192. Hawk, S. T., Ter Bogt, T. F., Van Den Eijnden, R. J., & Nelemans, S. A. (2015). Too little power, too much information! Power, narcissism, and adolescents’ disclosures on social networking sites. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 72-80. Hogan, B. (2010). The presentation of self in the age of social media: Distinguishing performances and exhibitions online. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 0270467610385893. Holifield, B. (2010). Who sees the lake? Narcissism and our relationship to the natural world. Jung Journal: Culture & Psyche, 4(1), 19-31. Horwitz, L. (2000). Narcissistic leadership in psychotherapy groups. International journal of group psychotherapy, 50(2), 219-235. Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1982). Toward a social psychological theory of tourism motivation: A rejoinder. Annals of tourism research, 9(2), 256-262. Komppula, R., Ilves, R., & Airey, D. (2016). Social holidays as a tourist experience in Finland. Tourism Management, 52, 521-532. Kontogeorgopoulos, N. (2005) Community based eco-tourism in Phukhet and Ao Phangnga, Thailand: partial victories and bittersweet remedies. Journal of sustainable tourism 13 (1). Kwon, Y. J., & Kwon, K. N. (2015). Consuming the Objectified Self: The Quest for Authentic Self. Asian Social Science, 11(2), 301. Lambert, A., & Desmond, J. (2013). Loyal Now, but Not Forever! A Study of Narcissism and Male Consumer–Brand Relationships. Psychology & Marketing, 30(8), 690-706. Lasch, C. (1979). The culture of narcissism: American life in an age of diminishing expectations. New York: W. W. Norton. Leask, A., Fyall, A., & Barron, P. (2013). Generation Y: opportunity or challenge–strategies to engage Generation Y in the UK attractions’ sector. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(1), 17-46. Lee, S., Scott, D., & Kim, H. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3), 809-832. Lepp, A. (2008). Attitudes towards initial tourism development in a community with no prior tourism experience: The case of Bigodi, Uganda. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(1), 5-22. Levin, A. (2014). The Selfie in the age of Digital Recursion. InVisible Culture, (20). Lo, I. S., & McKercher, B. (2015). Ideal image in process: Online tourist photography and impression management. Annals of Tourism Research, 52, 104-116. Lo, I. S., McKercher, B., Lo, A., Cheung, C., & Law, R. (2011). Tourism and online photography. Tourism Management, 32(4), 725-731. Lyu, S. O. (2016). Travel selfies on social media as objectified self-presentation. Tourism Management, 54, 185-195. MacCannell, D. (2002). The ego factor in tourism. Journal of Consumer research, 29(1), 146-151. MacDonald, P. (2014). Narcissism in the modern world. Psychodynamic Practice, 20(2), 144-153. Malone, S., McCabe, S., & Smith, A. P. (2014). The role of hedonism in ethical tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 44, 241-254. Månsson, M. (2011). Mediatized tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1634-1652. Marcouiller, D. W. (1997). Toward integrative tourism planning in rural America. Journal of Planning Literature, 11(3), 337-357. Marwick, A. & Boyd, D. (2010). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media and Society, 13, 114-133. McKercher, B. (2002). Towards a classification of cultural tourists. International journal of tourism research, 4(1), 29-38. Mehdizadeh S. (2010) Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(4): 357–364. Mundet, L., & Coenders, G. (2010). Greenways: a sustainable leisure experience concept for both communities and tourists. Journal of sustainable tourism, 18(5), 657-674. Mura, P., & Tavakoli, R. (2014). Tourism and social capital in Malaysia. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(1), 28-45. Naderi, I., & Strutton, D. (2014). Can normal narcissism be managed to promote green product purchases? Investigating a counterintuitive proposition. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(5), 375-391. Navarro, J. (2013). Hunting terrorists: A look at the psychopathology of terror. Charles C Thomas Publisher. Noy, C. (2004). This trip really changed me: Backpackers’ narratives of self-change. Annals of Tourism research, 31(1), 78-102. Obrador, P. (2012). The place of the family in tourism research: Domesticity and thick sociality by the pool. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), 401-420. Ooi, N., & Laing, J. H. (2010). Backpacker tourism: sustainable and purposeful? Investigating the overlap between backpacker tourism and volunteer tourism motivations. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(2), 191-206. Opel, D. S. (2014). Self-representation in literary fandom: Women's leisure reader selfies as postfeminist performance. Transformative Works and Cultures, 18. Ottman, J. A., Stafford, E. R., & Hartman, C. L. (2006). Avoiding green marketing myopia: Ways to improve consumer appeal for environmentally preferable products. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 48(5), 22-36. Pan, T. J. (2012). Motivations of volunteer overseas and what have we learned–The experience of Taiwanese students. Tourism Management, 33(6), 1493-1501. Panek, E. T., Nardis, Y., & Konrath, S. (2013). Mirror or Megaphone?: How relationships between narcissism and social networking site use differ on Facebook and Twitter. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 2004-2012. Pearce, J., & Moscardo, G. (2015). Social representations of tourist selfies: new challenges for sustainable tourism. BEST EN Think Tank X, The Environment-People Nexus in Sustainable Tourism: Finding the Balance. Available at: (accessed 30/03/2016). Peek, H. (2014). The selfie in the digital age: from social media to sexting. Psychiatric Times, 31(12), 28G-28G. Perkins, H. E., & Brown, P. R. (2012). Environmental values and the so-called true ecotourist. Journal of Travel Research, 0047287512451133. Poon, A. (1993). Tourism, technology and competitive strategies. CAB international. Qiu, L., Lu, J., Yang, S., Qu, W., & Zhu, T. (2015). What does your selfie say about you?. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 443-449. Rao, R. S., & Schaefer, R. (2013). Conspicuous consumption and dynamic pricing. Marketing Science, 32(5), 786-804. Rasmi, S., Ng, S., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2014). Tourists' strategies: An acculturation approach. Tourism Management, 40, 311-320. Reimer, J.K. and Walter, P. (2013) How do you know when you see it? Community-based ecotourism in the Cardamom Mountains of southwestern Cambodia. Tourism Management 34: 122-132. Rohde, P. (1968) Soren Kierkegaard: The Danish Philosopher. Copenhagen: Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Richards, G. (2011). Creativity and tourism: The state of the art. Annals of tourism research, 38(4), 1225-1253. Roberts, D. (2014). In defense of defenselessness: Kierkegaard's critique of an accepted narcissism. The Heythrop Journal, 55(5), 827-844. Robinson, M., & Novelli, M. (2005). Niche tourism: an introduction. Niche tourism: Contemporary issues, trends and cases. Rodin, G., & Izenberg, S. (1996). Treating the narcissistic personality disorder. Treating difficult personality disorders, 107-122. Rosen, L. D., Whaling, K., Rab, S., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Is Facebook creating “iDisorders”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1243-1254. Shakespeare, T. (2016) A Point of View: Does cosmetic surgery really make people feel better about their bodies? Available at: (accessed 04/03/2016). Shim, C., & Santos, C. A. (2014). Tourism, place and placelessness in the phenomenological experience of shopping malls in Seoul. Tourism Management, 45, 106-114. Shields, R. (Ed.). (2003). Lifestyle shopping: the subject of consumption. Routledge. Sin, H. L. (2009). Volunteer tourism—“involve me and I will learn”?. Annals of tourism research, 36(3), 480-501. Snow, R. (2008). Tourism and American Identity: Kodak's Conspicuous Consumers Abroad. The Journal of American Culture, 31(1), 7-19. Sørensen, A. (2003). Backpacker ethnography. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(4), 847-867. Sorokowski, P., Sorokowska, A., Oleszkiewicz, A., Frackowiak, T., Huk, A., & Pisanski, K. (2015). Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 123-127. Stronza, A. and Gordillo, J. (2008) Community views of ecotourism. Annals of tourism research 35(2): 448-468. Suntikul, W., & Jachna, T. (2016). The co-creation/place attachment nexus. Tourism Management, 52, 276-286. Szalavitz, M., & Perry, B. D. (2010). Born for love. New York, NY: William Morrow. Tao, T. C., & Wall, G. (2009). Tourism as a sustainable livelihood strategy. Tourism management, 30(1), 90-98. Trauer, B., & Ryan, C. (2005). Destination image, romance and place experience—an application of intimacy theory in tourism. Tourism Management, 26(4), 481-491. Tucker, H. (2016). Empathy and tourism: Limits and possibilities. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, 31-43. Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2009). The narcissism epidemic: Living in the age of entitlement. Simon and Schuster. Tyler, I. (2007). From the ‘Me Decade' to the ‘Me Millennium' The cultural history of narcissism. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(3), 343-363. Valentine, D., & Powers, T. (2013). Generation Y values and lifestyle segments. Journal of consumer marketing, 30(7), 597-606. Vaux Halliday, S., & Astafyeva, A. (2014). Millennial cultural consumers: co-creating value through brand communities. Arts Marketing: An International Journal, 4(1/2), 119-135. Vesanen, J. (2007). What is personalization? A conceptual framework. European Journal of Marketing, 41(5/6), 409-418. Vogt, J. W. (1976). Wandering: Youth and travel behavior. Annals of tourism research, 4(1), 25-41. Walters, N. T., & Horton, R. (2015). A diary study of the influence of Facebook use on narcissism among male college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 326-330. Wang, N. (1999). Rethinking authenticity in tourism experience. Annals of tourism research, 26(2), 349-370. Wearing, S. L., McDonald, M., & Wearing, M. (2013). Consumer culture, the mobilisation of the narcissistic self and adolescent deviant leisure. Leisure Studies, 32(4), 367-381. Wei, L., Crompton, J. L., & Reid, L. M. (1989). Cultural conflicts: Experiences of US visitors to China. Tourism Management, 10(4), 322-332. Weiser, E. B. (2015). # Me: Narcissism and its facets as predictors of selfie-posting frequency. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 477-481. Wheeller, B. (1991). Tourism's troubled times: Responsible tourism is not the answer. Tourism Management, 12(2), 91-96. Wheeller, B. (1993) Sustaining the ego. Journal of sustainable tourism 1(2): 121. Wheeller, B. (2004). The truth? The hole truth. Everything but the truth. Tourism and knowledge: a septic sceptic’s perspective. Current Issues in Tourism, 7(6), 467-477. Wheeller, B. (2005). Ecotourism/egotourism and development (pp. 263-272). Nature-based tourism in peripheral areas: Development or disaster. Williams, Z. (2016) Me, me, me! Are we living through a narcissism epidemic? Available at: Wolfe, T. (1976). The me decade and the third great awakening. New York Magazine, 23, 26-40. Yasothornsrikul, P., & Bowen, D. (2015). Tourism demonstration and value change. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(1), 96-104. Young, S. M., & Pinsky, D. (2006). Narcissism and celebrity. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(5), 463-471.
Depositing User: Brendan Canavan
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2017 16:06
Last Modified: 28 Aug 2021 16:22


Downloads per month over past year

Repository Staff Only: item control page

View Item View Item

University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©