Milsom, David (2014) Expressiveness in historical perspective – 19th-century ideals and practices. In: Expressiveness in Music Performance: Empirical Approaches Across Styles and Cultures. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 80-97. ISBN 9780199659647

This chapter examines ways in which nineteenth-century musicians practiced expressivity. These methods differ strikingly from current, 'manistream' notions of what it is to play tastefully, and expressively, including notable distinctions compared to recent times in respect of tempo rubato, sychronicity of melody and accompaniment, as well as applications of vocal-derived devices such as portamento, and vibrato. The central tenet of the chapter is to summarise, with examples, how nineteenth-century expressivity differs from more recent, received notions, proposing that studies of expressivity need to be responsive to different chronological and cultural contexts.

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