Canter, David V., Youngs, Donna E. and Yaneva, Miroslava (2017) Towards a measure of kindness: An Exploration of a Neglected Interpersonal Trait. Personality and Individual Differences, 106. pp. 15-20. ISSN 0191-8869

Although a growing number of studies indicate the psychological benefits of Kindness no clear
definition or distinct measure of Kindness is available. A framework for considering kindness
was therefore developed and a 40 item self-report questionnaire (the kindness measure) produced
from it. This was completed by a sample of 165 people differing in age, gender and occupation.
Responses varied enough to indicate the measure is discriminating between people. Multivariate
analysis indicated three distinct aspects of kindness: Benign Tolerance (BT), Empathetic
Responsivity (ER), and Principled Proaction (PP). Central to these, a more fundamental form of
Kindness was also identified, that we propose to call Core Kindness (CK), that contrasts with
Psychopathy, as an important aspect of personality. Differences between men and women and
younger and older people lend external validity to the kindness scales and bode well for future
more detailed studies. Directions for future research are proposed.

Final version of Kindness paper sent to PAID 20-9-16.pdf - Accepted Version

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