Magee, D. A., MacHugh, D. E. and Edwards, Ceiridwen J. (2014) Interrogation of modern and ancient genomes reveals the complex domestic history of cattle. Animal Frontiers, 4 (3). pp. 7-22. ISSN 2160-6056

The analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence polymorphisms from modern cattle populations has had a profound impact on our understanding of the events surrounding the domestication of cattle. From these studies, it has been possible to distinguish between pre- and post-domestic genetic differentiation, supporting previous assertions from archaeological studies and, in some cases, revealing novel aspects of the demographic history of cattle.
Analyses of genetic material retrieved from the remains of extinct ancestral wild cattle have also added valuable layers of information pertaining to cattle domestic origins; however, information from these investigations have, in general, been limited to small, variable portions of the mitochondrial genome owing to technical challenges associated with the retrieval and amplification of ancient DNA.
In recent years, however, new high-throughput, massively parallel genomics technology platforms, such as single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS), have provided a new impetus to the studies of genetic variation in extant and ancient cattle.
Arrays of SNP have facilitated high-resolution genetic surveys of global cattle populations and detection of ancient and recent genomic selective sweeps. Next-generation sequencing analyses of modern and ancient cattle hold great promise for identifying and cataloging of pre- and post-domestication patterns of genomic variation and correlating this with natural and artificial selection processes.

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