Long, Hua (2013) Research routing and MAC based on LEACH and S-MAC for energy efficiency and QoS in wireless sensor network. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

The wireless sensor is a micro-embedded device with weak data processing capability and small storage space. These nodes need to complete complex jobs, including data monitoring, acquisition and conversion, and data processing. Energy efficiency should be considered as one of the important aspects of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) throughout architecture and protocol design. At the same time, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) in WSNs is a research field, because the time-sensitive and important information is expected for the transmitting to to the sink node immediately. The thesis is supported by the projects entitled “The information and control system for preventing forest fires”, and “The Erhai information management system”, funded by the Chinese Government. Energy consumption and QoS are two main objectives of the projects. The thesis discusses the two aspects in route and Media Access Control (MAC).
For energy efficiency, the research is based on Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) protocol. LEACH is a benchmark clustering routing protocol which imposes upon cluster heads to complete a lot of aggregation and relay of messages to the base-station. However, there are limitations in LEACH. LEACH does not suit a wide area in clustering strategy and multi-hop routing. Moreover, routing protocols only focus on one factor, combining the clustering strategy and multi-hop routing mechanism were not considered in routing protocol for performance of network.
QoS is supported by the MAC and routing protocol. Sensor MAC(S-MAC) makes the use of the periodically monitoring / sleeping mechanism, as well as collision and crosstalk avoidance mechanism. The mechanism reduces energy costs. Meanwhile, it supports good scalability and avoids the collision. However, the protocols do not take the differentiated services. For supporting QoS,A new route protocol needs to be designed and realized on embed platforms, which has WIFI mode and a Linux operation system to apply on the actual system.
This research project was conducted as following the steps: A new protocol called RBLEACH is proposed to solve cluster on a widely scale based on LEACH. The area is divided into a few areas, where LEACH is improved to alter the selecting function in each area. RBLEACH creates routes selected by using a new algorithm to optimize the performance of the network. A new clustering method that has been developed to use several factors is PS-ACO-LEACH. The factors include the residual energy of the cluster head and Euclidean distances between cluster members and a cluster head. It can optimally solve fitness function and maintain a load balance in between the cluster head nodes, a cluster head and the base station. Based on the “Ant Colony” algorithm and transition of probability, a new routing protocol was created by “Pheromone” to find the optimal path of cluster heads to the base station. This protocol can reduce energy consumption of cluster heads and unbalanced energy consumption. Simulations prove that the improved protocol can enhance the performance of the network, including lifetime and energy conservation. Additionally, Multi Index Adaptive Routing Algorithm (MIA-QR) was designed based on network delay, packet loss rate and signal strength for QoS. The protocol is achieved by VC on an embedded Linux system. The MIA-QR is tested and verified by experiment and the protocol is to support QoS. Finally, an improved protocol (SMAC -SD) for wireless sensor networks is proposed, in order to solve the problem of S-MAC protocol that consider either service differentiation or ensure quality of service. According to service differentiation, SMAC-SD adopts an access mechanism based on different priorities including the adjustment of priority mechanisms of channel access probability, channel multi-request mechanisms and the configuring of waiting queues with different priorities and RTS backoff for different service, which makes the important service receive high channel access probability, ensuring the transmission quality of the important service. The simulation results show that the improved protocol is able to gain amount of important service and shortens the delay at the same time. Meanwhile, it improves the performance of the network effectively

H_Long_-_Final_Thesis.pdf - Submitted Version

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