Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Density-dependent compensations in experimental blowfly populations give indirectly positive effects of a toxicant

Moe, S. Jannicke, Stenseth, Nils Chr. and Smith, Robert H. (2002) Density-dependent compensations in experimental blowfly populations give indirectly positive effects of a toxicant. Ecology, 83 (6). pp. 1597-1603. ISSN 0012-9658

[img] PDF
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (338kB)


Effects of the toxicant cadmium were studied in blowfly populations, to test whether this abiotic factor could produce indirectly positive effects on demographic rates by interacting with density-dependent processes. A previous study has demonstrated that although cadmium is toxic to blowfly individuals, cadmium exposure of whole blowfly populations nevertheless results in increased mean pupal mass and biomass production. Moreover, statistical modeling of demographic rates has indicated that cadmium-exposed populations have higher larva-to-adult survival. The aim of the present study was to test this model prediction, and to describe underlying density-dependent mechanisms. Blowflies were exposed to cadmium in both low and high densities, in two subsequent generations. In the first generation (low densities) all demographic rates were reduced by cadmium exposure, whereas in the second generation (high densities), survival of old larvae and pupae was higher in cadmium-exposed populations than in control populations. The increased survival was due to reduced larval competition, which resulted from lower reproduction and lower survival of young larvae. Hence, the indirectly positive effects of the toxicant were caused by density-dependent compensatory reactions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2002 by the Ecological Society of America
Uncontrolled Keywords: blowflies, cadmium, Calliphoridae, compensatory responses, density dependence, ecotoxicology, larval competition, Lucilia sericata, pollution, effects on population, population dynamics, toxicant, indirectly positive effects
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QP Physiology
Q Science > QR Microbiology
Schools: School of Applied Sciences
References: Allee, W. C. 1938. The social life of animals. William Heinemann, London, UK. Andrewartha, H. G., and L. C. Birch. 1954. The distribution and abundance of animals. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Il1inois, USA. Chandini, T. 1989. Survival, growth and reproduction of Daphnia carinata (Crustacea: Cladocera) exposed to chronic cadmium stress at different food (Chlorella) levels. Environmental Pollution 60:29-45. Connell, J. H. 1985. The consequences of variation in initial settlement vs. post-settlement mortality in rocky intertidal communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 93: 11-45. Cox, D. R., and D. Oakes. 1984. Analysis of survival data. Chapman and Hall, London, UK. Daniels. S. 1994. Effects of cadmium toxicity on population dynamics of the blowfly Lucilia sericata. Dissertation. University of Reading, Reading, UK. Daniels. S., K, Simkiss, and R. H. Smith. 1991. A simple larval diet for population studies on the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Medical and Veterinary Entomology 5:283-292. Forbes, V. E.. R. M. Sibly. and P. Calow. 2001. Toxicant impacts on density-limited populations: a critical review of theory, practice, and results. Ecological Applications 11: 1249-1257. Grant, A. 1998. Population consequences of chronic toxicity: incorporating density dependence into the analysis of life table response experiments. Ecological Modelling 105: 325-335. Kaplan, E. L.. and P. Meier. 1958. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal ofthe American Statistical Association 53:457-485. Kuhn, A., W. R. Munns, D. Champlin, R. McKinney, M. Tagliabue, J. Serbst, and T. Gleason. 2001. Evaluation of the efficacy of extrapolation population modeling to predict the dynamics of Americamysis bahia populations in the laboratory. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 213-221. Lingja:rde, O. C., N. C. Stenseth, A. B. Kristoffersen, R. H. Smith, S. J. Moe, J. M. Read, S. Daniels, and K. Simkiss. 2001. Exploring the density-dependent structure of blowfly populations by nonparametric additive modeling. Ecology 82:2645-2658. Linke-Gamenick, 1., V. E. Forbes, and R. M. Sibly. 1999. Density-dependent effects of a toxicant on life-history traits and population dynamics of a capitellid polychaete. Marine Ecology Progress Series 184:139-148. Marshall, J. S. 1978. Population dynamics of Daphnia galeata mendotae as modified by chronic cadmium stress. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35:461- 469. McCullagh, P, and J. A. Nelder. 1989. Generalized linear models. Monographs on statistics and applied probability. Chapman and Hall, London, UK. Moe, S. J., N. C. Stenseth, and R. H. Smith. 2001. Effects of a toxicant on population growth rates: sublethal and delayed responses in blowfly populations. Functional Ecology 15:712-721. Moe, S. J., N. C. Stenseth, and R. H. Smith. 2002. Density dependence in blowfly populations: experimental evaluation of non-parametric time-series modelling. Oikos, in press. Nicholson, A. J. 1954. An outline of the dynamics of animal populations. Australian Journal of Zoology 2:9-65. Nicholson, A. J. 1957. The self-adjustment of populations to change. Cold Spring Harbour Symposia on Quantitative Biology 22:153-172. Parker, E. D., V. E. Forbes, S. L. Nielsen, C. Ritter, C. Barata, D. J. Baird, W. Admiraal, L. Levin, V. Loeschke, P. Lyytikainen- Saarenmaa, H. Hl!Igh-Jensen, P. Calow, and B. J. Ripley. 1999. Stress in ecological systems. Oikos 86: 179- 184. Peterson, C. H., and R. Black. 1988. Density-dependent mortality caused by physical stress interacting with biotic history. American Naturalist 131:257-270. Postma, J. E, M. C. Buckert-de Jong, N. Staats, and C. Davids. 1994. Chronic toxicity of cadmium to Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) at different food levels. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 26:143-148. Rognes, K. 1991. Blowflies (Diptera, Calliphoridae) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. In N. P. Kristensen, editor. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands. Sibly, R. M., T. D. WiIliams, and M. B. Jones. 2000. How environmental stress affects density dependence and carrying capacity in a marine copepod. Journal of Applied Ecology 37:388-397. Simkiss, K., S. Daniels, and R. H. Smith. 1993. Effects of population density and cadmium toxicity on growth and survival of blowflies. Environmental Pollution 81:41-45. Smith, R. H., S. Daniels, K. Simkiss, E. D. Bell, S. Ellner, and B. Forrest. 2000. Blowflies as a case study in nonlinear population dynamics. Pages 137-172 in J. N. Perry, R. H. Smith, 1. P. Woiwod, and D. Morses, editors. Chaos in real data: the analysis of non-linear dynamics in short ecological time series. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Turchin, P. 1995. Population regulation: old arguments and a new synthesis. Pages 19-40 in N. Cappuccino and P. W. Prices, editors. Population dynamics: new approaches and synthesis. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA. Ullyett, G. C. 1950. Competition for food and allied phenomena in sheep-blowfly populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 234:77- 174. Underwood, A. J. 1989. The analysis of stress in natural populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 37: 51-78.
Depositing User: Sara Taylor
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2007
Last Modified: 29 Mar 2018 10:16


Downloads per month over past year

Repository Staff Only: item control page

View Item View Item

University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©