Cruciani, Fulvio, La Fratta, Roberta, Santolamazza, Piero, Sellitto, Daniele, Pascone, Roberto, Moral, Pedro, Watson, Elizabeth, Guida, Valentina, Colomb, Eliane Beraud, Zaharova, Boriana, Lavinha, João, Vona, Giuseppe, Aman, Rashid, Calì, Francesco, Akar, Nejat, Richards, Martin B., Torroni, Antonio, Novelletto, Andrea and Scozzari, Rosaria (2004) Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 74 (5). pp. 1014-1022. ISSN 0002-9297

We explored the phylogeography of human Y-chromosomal haplogroup E3b by analyzing 3,401 individuals from five continents. Our data refine the phylogeny of the entire haplogroup, which appears as a collection of lineages with very different evolutionary histories, and reveal signatures of several distinct processes of migrations and/or recurrent gene flow that occurred in Africa and western Eurasia over the past 25,000 years. In Europe, the overall frequency pattern of haplogroup E-M78 does not support the hypothesis of a uniform spread of people from a single parental Near Eastern population. The distribution of E-M81 chromosomes in Africa closely matches the present area of distribution of Berber-speaking populations on the continent, suggesting a close haplogroup–ethnic group parallelism. E-M34 chromosomes were more likely introduced in Ethiopia from the Near East. In conclusion, the present study shows that earlier work based on fewer Y-chromosome markers led to rather simple historical interpretations and highlights the fact that many population-genetic analyses are not robust to a poorly resolved phylogeny

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