Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Perceptions of learning difficulties: a study examining the views of Pakistani and white chldren with learning difficulties, their parents, peers and school staff

Ali, Majid (2008) Perceptions of learning difficulties: a study examining the views of Pakistani and white chldren with learning difficulties, their parents, peers and school staff. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

Download (937kB) | Preview


    This research investigates cultural differences and similarities in the
    perceptions of four British Pakistani and four British white children aged
    eleven with learning difficulties. This is pursued through four main aims that
    examine how aware pupils are of their learning difficulties; how they and their
    significant others perceive their learning difficulties; how they respond to key
    labels used to refer to them; and to what extent there are cultural differences
    and similarities between the two groups of pupils. This work has been carried
    out because there is currently limited research in this area. The pupils’ views
    are explored in two contrasting Bradford (West Yorkshire) primary schools
    where the cultural population is either predominantly Pakistani or white.
    A variety of data collection methods, including semi-structured interviews, a
    self-image profile, focus group interviews and observations have been used to
    collect data. The findings indicate that there are more commonalities between
    the Pakistani and white cultures than there are differences, for example
    although Pakistani and white children enjoy coming to school and want to do
    well, they are unhappy, embarrassed, and humiliated about having a learning
    difficulty and hence face these additional pressures in school. Pakistani
    children expressed more of an interest in attending university and then
    embarking on professional careers compared to white children.
    Peers of average/higher ability perceive children with learning difficulties to
    be more prone to bullying, slow learners, unpopular and these peers have low
    expectations of what the children with learning difficulties are able to do. Staff
    view children with learning difficulties as lacking in confidence and selfesteem,
    experiencing unhappiness, having a low self-image, working at a
    slower pace and often lacking motivation.
    The implications of this research indicate that schools needs to raise the selfesteem
    and confidence of children with learning difficulties, so that these
    children are able to view their learning difficulty in a positive way. Schools
    need to be aware of the pressures that children in the low ability groups face,
    and schools therefore need to maintain a balance in providing children with a
    basic skills curriculum matched to the individual needs of children and yet
    continue to promote their personal development and well-being.

    ▼ Jump to Download Statistics
    Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
    Additional Information: © The Author 2008
    Uncontrolled Keywords: learning difficulties; children; parents; peers; school staff
    Subjects: L Education > LB Theory and practice of education
    L Education > L Education (General)
    Schools: School of Education and Professional Development

    Adler, P.A. and Adler, P. (1993) Ethical issues in self-censorship:
    Ethnographic research on sensitive topics in C.M. Renzetti and Ahmed, B.
    (1996) Reflexivity, cultural membership and power in the research
    Situation: tensions and contradictions when considering the
    researcher’s role. The British Psychology Society, Psychology of
    Women section Newsletter. 7: 35-40.
    Ahmad, W. and Atkin, K. (1996) Race and Community Care. Buckingham:
    Open University Press.
    Ainscow, M. Muncey, J. (1991) Meeting Individual Needs. London: Fulton.
    Ainscow, T.B. Hawkins-Black, M. Vaughan, K. Shaw, L. (2000) Index for
    Inclusion – Developing Learning and Participation in Schools. Bristol: CSIE.
    Alam, M.Y. and Husband, C. (2006) British-Pakistani men from Bradford.
    York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Alderson, P. (1995) Listening to children. London: Barnardos.
    Alley, G. and Deshler, D. (1979) Teaching the learning disabled
    adolescent: strategies and methods. Denver, Co: Lone.
    Amos, V. and Parmar, P. (1981) Resistance and Responses: the experiences
    of black girls in Britain’, in A McRobbie and T McCabe (Eds) Feminism for
    Girls: an adventure story. London: Routledge.
    Ansari, H. (2004) The infidel within: Muslims in Britain since 1800. London:
    Argyris, C. Putnam, R. Smith, D.M. (1985) Action Science. London: Jossey-
    Atkinson, P. and Hammersley, M. (1995) Ethnography – Principles in
    Practice. London: Routledge.
    Bandura, A. (1982) Self efficacy mechanism in human agency, American
    Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
    Bannister, D. and Fransella, F. (1986) Inquiring Man: The Psychology of
    Personal Constructs. London: Croom Helm.
    Barker, M (1981) The New Racism. London: Junction Books.
    Barn, R. Sinclair, R. and Ferdinand, D. (1997) Acting on principle. London:
    BAAF.Basit, N.T. (2003) Manual or electronic? The role of coding in qualitative data
    analysis. Educational Research, Volume 45 (2), pp. 143-154.
    Bassey, M. (1999) Case Study Research in Educational Settings. Buckingham:
    Open University Press.
    Baxter, C. (1998) ‘Learning Difficulties.’ pp. 231-242. In Rawaf S and Bahl V
    (Eds) Accessing health needs of people from minority ethnic groups. London:
    Royal College of Physicians/Faculty of Public Health Medicine.
    Bear, G.G. Minke, K.M. Manning. M.A. (2002) Self-concept of students with
    learning disabilities. Psychology Review, volume 3, number 3, p405-427.
    Beauchamp, T.L., Faden, R.R., Wallace, R.J. and Walters, L. (1982) Ethical
    issues in social science research. Baltimore. MB: John Hopkins
    University Press.
    Becker, P. (1993) Pitfalls in grounded theory research. Qualitative Health
    Research 3 (2), pp.254-60.
    Begley, A. (2000) The Educational Self Perceptions of Children with Down’s
    Syndrome – in A. Lewis and G. Lindsay- Researching Children’s
    Perspectives (p98-121). Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Beresford, B. (1997) Personal accounts: involving disabled children in
    research. Social Policy Research Unit.
    Black, F.W. (1974) Self-concept as related to achievement and age in learning
    disabled children. Child Development, 45, 1137-1140.
    Blatchford, P. (1996) Pupils’ views on schoolwork and school from 7 to 16
    years. Research Papers in Education, Volume 11 (2), pp.263-288.
    Blascovich, J. and Tomaka, J. (1991) Measures of self-esteem. In Measures of
    personality and social psychology attitudes, (pp. 115-160). New York:
    Academic Press.
    Bloom, B.S. (1976) Human characteristics and school learning. New York:
    Bogdan, R.C. Biklen, S.K. (1992) Qualitative Research for Education: An
    Introduction to Theory and Methods. `Boston: Allyn Bacon.
    Booth, T. and Ainscow, M. (1998) From Them to Us: An International Study
    of Inclusion in Education. London: Routledge.
    Bracken, B.A. (1992) Multidimensional self-concept scale. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Brah, A (1996) Cartogrophies of Diaspora. London: Routledge.
    Brewer, J.D (2002) Ethnography. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Brophy, J.E. (1983) Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher
    expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology. 75, 631-661.
    Bruner, E.M (1984) Text, Play and Story: The Construction and
    Reconstruction of Self and Society. Washington: The American
    Ethnological Society.
    Bryan, T.H. (1986) Personality and situational factors in learning
    Disability. In G.T. Pavlidis. and D.D. Fisher (Eds) Dyslexia:
    Its neurocpychology and treatment (pp. 215-230). Chichester:
    England: Wiley.
    Bull, R. (1998) ‘Obtaining information from child witnesses.’ In A. Memon, A.
    Vrij and R. Bull, Psychology and Law: truthfulness, accuracy and credibility.
    London: McGraw-Hill.
    Burgess, R.G. (1982) In the Field, An Introduction to Field Research.
    London: Routledge.
    Burns, R. (1982) Self-concept Development. London: Holt Education.
    Butler, R.J. (2001) The self-image profiles. London: The Psychological
    Butler, R.J. Redfern, E.J. and Holland, P. (1994) Children’s notions about
    enuresis and the implications for treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Urology
    and Nephrology. Supplement 163, 39-48.
    Butler, R.J. and Gasson, L.S. (2005). Self-esteem/self-concept scales for
    children and adolescents: A Review. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Vol.
    10, No. 4, pp. 190-201.
    Butler, R. and Green, D. (1998) The child within – the exploration of personal
    construct theory with young people. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
    Butt, J. and Mirza, K. (1996) Social Care and Clack Communities. London:
    Byrne, B. M. (1986) Self-concept/academic achievement relations: an
    investigation of dimensionality, stability and causality. Canadian
    Journal of Behavioural Science, 18, 173-186.Byrne, B. (1996) Measuring self-concept across the life span: Issues and
    Instrumentation. American Psychological Association. Washington DC.
    Cambra, C. and Silvestre, N. (2003) Students with special educational
    needs in the inclusive classroom: social integration and self-concept.
    European Journal of Special Needs Education. Volume 18 (2). pp. 197-208.
    Cantle, T. (2001) Community Cohesion: A Report of the Independent Review
    Team. London: Home Office.
    Central Advisory Council for Education (1967) Children and their Primary
    Schools (The Plowden Report) London: HMSO.
    Chamba, R. Ahmad, W. and Jones, L. (1998) Improving services for Asian
    deaf children. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Chapman, J.W. and Boersma, F.J. (1979) Academic self-concept in
    elementary learning-disabled children: a study with the student’s
    perception of ability scale. Psychology in the Schools, 16, 201-206.
    Chapman, J.W. and Turner, W.E. (1995) Development of young children’s
    Reading self-concepts: An examination of emerging subcomponents
    and their relationship with reading achievement. Journal of Educational
    Psychology, 87, 154-167.
    Chapman, J.W. (1988) ‘Learning disabled children’s self-concepts.’
    Review of educational research, 58, 1, pp 347-371.
    Cheston, R. (1994) ‘The Account of Special Education Leavers’. Disability and
    Society. 9, 1, p 59-69.
    Children’s Act (England and Wales, 1989) Part V, 43, (8), HMSO: London.
    Christensen, P and James, A. (2000) Research with Children. Perspectives
    and Practices. London: Falmer Press.
    Cicourel, A.V. (1964) Sociology. New York: Free Press.
    Clever, A., Bear, G.G. and Juvonen, J. (1992) Discrepancies between
    competence and importance in self perceptions of children in
    Integrated classes. Journal of Special Education, 26. 125-138.
    Cline, T., Abreu, D.G., Fihosy, C., Gray, H., Lambert, H., Neale, J., (2002)
    DfES Report Number 365 – minority ethnic pupils in mainly white schools.
    London: HMSO.
    Cloke, C. (1995) Forging the circle: the relationship between children,
    policy, research and practice in children’s rights. In C. Cloke and Coffey, A and Atkinson, P. (1996) Making Sense of Qualitative Data:
    London: Sage.
    Cohen, L. and Manion, L. (1989) Research Methods in Education/ London:
    Community Relations Commission (CRC) (1976) Between Two Cultures, CRC.
    Cooper, P. (1993) Effective Schools for Disaffected Students. London:
    Coppersmith, S. (1967) The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco:
    Corbett, J. (1995) Bad Mouthing: The Language of Special Needs. London:
    Corsaro, W. (1985) Friendship and peer culture in the early years. Ablex.
    Cosden, M. Elliott, K, Noble, S. and Kelemen, E. (1999) Self understanding
    and self-esteem in children with learning disabilities. Learning
    Disability Quarterly, 22, (4), pp 279-289.
    Covington, M.V. and Beery, R.G. (1976) Self-worth and school learning, New
    York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    Crabtree, B.F. and Miller, W.L (1992) The Case for Participatory Evaluation.
    Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14, 397-418.
    Cresswell, J.W. (1994) Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative
    Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
    Crozier, G. (1999) ‘Is it a case of “We know when we’re not wanted?” The
    parents’ perspective on parent-teacher roles and relationships.’ Educational
    Research, 4, (3), 315-328.
    Crozier, G. (2000) Parents and schools: partners or protagonists? Stone-on
    Trent: Trentham Books.
    Crozier, G. and Davies, J. (2007) Hard to reach parents or hard to reach
    schools? A discussion of home-school relations, with particular reference to
    Bangladeshi and Pakistani parents. British Educational research Journal, Vol
    33, No. 3, 295-313.
    Curray, S. and Russ, S. (1985) Identifying coping strategies in children.Davies, M and Dotchin, J. (1995) Improving Quality through Participation: An
    Approach to Measuring Children’s Expectations and Perceptions of
    Services. London: Pitman.
    Davie, R. Upton, G. and Varma, V (1996) The voice of the child: a handbook
    for professionals. London: Falmer Press.
    Deci, E.L. and Chandler, L.L. (1986) The importance of motivation for the
    future of the LD field. Journal of Learning Disability, 19, 587-594.
    Deci, E.L., Hodges, R., Pierson, L. and Tomassone, J. (1992) Autonomy and
    competence as motivational factors in students with learning
    disabilities and emotional handicaps. Journal of Learning Disability.
    25, 457-471.
    Denscombe, M. (1998) The Good Research Guide: for small scale-projects.
    Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Denscombe, M. and Aubrook, L. (2002) The ethics of questionnaire research
    pupils in schools: ‘it’s just another piece of schoolwork.’ British
    Educational Research Journal, 18, 113-31.
    Dent, H.R. (1986) An experimental study of the effectiveness of different
    techniques of questioning mentally handicapped child witnesses. British
    Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25, 13-17.
    Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (2003) Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry.
    London: Sage.
    Denzin, N.K. (1989) Interpretive Interactions. London: Sage.
    DES (1978) Special educational needs. Report of the committee of enquiry
    into the education of handicapped children and young people. London:
    Dexter, L. (1970) Elite and specialised interviewing. Evanston, Ill. North
    Western University Press.
    DfES (2001) Special Educational Needs Code of Practice, London: TSO.
    DfES (2002) Working Together: Giving Children and Young People A Say.
    London: TSO.
    DfES (2003) Every Child Matters. London: TSO.
    DfES (2003) Excellence and Enjoyment. London: TSO.
    DfES (2004) Removing Barriers to Achievement. London: TSO.DfES (2005) Ethnicity and Education – the evidence on minority pupils.
    London: HMSO.
    DfES (2006) Getting it right for every child. London: HMSO.
    DoH (1989) The Children’s Act. London: HMSO.
    DoH (2001) Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity. London: HMSO
    Dolby, N., Dimitriadis, G. and Willis, P. (2004) Learning to labour in new
    times. London: Routledge.
    Donnellan, C. (2003) Self-Esteem. Cambridge: Independence.
    Dweck, (2000) Self Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality and
    Development. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.
    Eiser, C. Eiser, J.R. and Havermans, T. (1995) The measurement of selfesteem:
    Practical and theoretical considerations. Personality and Individual
    Differences, 18, 429-432.
    Elliott, J.G. Hufton, N. Hildreth, A & Illushin, L. (1999) Factors influencing
    education motivation: a study of attitudes, expectations and behaviour
    of children in Sunderland, Kentucky and St Petersberg. British
    Educational Research Journal, Volume 25, pp. 75-94.
    Emler, N. (2001) Self-esteem: The costs and causes of low self-worth. York:
    Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York Publishing Services Ltd.
    Erikson, F. (1986) Qualitative Methods in Research on Teaching. In
    M.C. Witrock (Ed) Handbook of Research on Teaching (p119-161).
    New York: MacMillan.
    Eshel, Y. and Klein, Z. (1981) Development of academic self-concept of
    lower class primary school children. Journal of Educational
    Psychology. 73, 287-293.
    Farquhar, C. (1996) Lesbian Perspectives on HIV and Sexual Health. Paper
    presented at teaching to promote women’s health international
    multidisciplinary conference, June, Toronto, Canada.
    Felce, D. (2002) Gaining views from people with learning disabilities:
    authenticity, validity, reliability. Paper presented at ESRC seminar
    on interviewing children and young people with learning difficulties,
    Fenton, S. (1999) Ethnicity: Racism, Class and Culture. London: Macmillan.Fetterman, D.M. (1998) Ethnography: Step-by-Step. London: Sage.
    Fine, G.A. and Sandstrom, K.L. (1988) Knowing children: Participant
    observation with minors. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Fitts, W.H. and Warren, W.L. (1996) Tennessee Self-concept Scale Manual:
    Second Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
    Flick, U. Kardoff, E.V. and Steinke, J. (2004) A Companion to Qualitative
    Research. London: Sage.
    Fox, P. and Norwich, B. (1992) ‘Assessing the Self Perceptions of Young
    Adults with Severe Learning Difficulties’. European Journal of Special
    Needs Education, 7, 3, 193-202.
    Fransella, F. (1981) Nature babbling to herself. In H. Bonarius, T. Holland and
    S. Rosenburg (Eds) Personal Construct Psychology: Recent advances in theory
    and practice. London: Macmillan.
    Fransella and L. Thomas (1988) Experimenting with Personal Construct
    Psychology. London: Routledge Kegan Paul, pp. 223-229.
    Frederickson, N. and Cline, T. (Eds) (1995) Assessing the learning
    environments of children with special educational needs. London: Educational
    Psychology Publishing.
    Frederickson, N. and Cline, T. (2005) Special educational needs, inclusion and
    diversity. Berkshire: Open University Press.
    Freire, P. (1985) The Politics of education: culture, power and liberation.
    London: Macmillan.
    Gadamer, H.G. (1975) Truth and Method. New York: Seabury Press.
    Gardner, H. (1993) The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How
    Schools Should Teach. London: Fontana.
    Gardner, H. (1993) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New
    York: Basic Books.
    Gardner, H. (1998) A multiplicity of intelligences, scientific American presents:
    Exploring Intelligence, 9, (4), pp. 18-23.
    Gardner, H. (1999) Intelligence reframed: multiple intelligences for the 21st
    century. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, C. (1973) The interpretations of Cultures. New York Basic Books.Gettinger, M. and Koscik, R. (2001) Psychological services for children with
    learning disabilities. In J.N. Hughes, A.M. LaGreca, and J. C. Conoley (Eds.),
    Handbook of psychological services for children and adolescents (pp.421-
    435). New York: Oxford University.
    Giddens, A. (1998) Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gilbert, N. (2003) Researching Social Life. London: Sage.
    Gillborn, D. (1990) Race, ethnicity and education. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Glaser, B. G. Strauss, A. L. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory:
    Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Gold, R.L. (1958) Roles in Sociological Field Observations. Social Forces,
    36, pp217-223. Reproduced in G.J. McCall and J.L.Simmons (ed)
    (1969) Issues in Participant Observation: A Text and Reader.
    Reading: Addison-Wesley.
    Greene, S. and Hogan, D. (2005) Researching children’s perspectives,
    approaches and methods. London: Sage.
    Gross, R. (2005) Psychology – The science of mind and behaviour. Dubai:
    Hodder Arnold.
    Guba, E.G. Lincoln, Y.S. (1981) Effective Evaluation. New York: Jossey-Bass.
    Guba, E.G. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1994) Competing Paradigms in Qualitative
    Research. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds) Handbook
    Of Qualitat

    Depositing User: Sara Taylor
    Date Deposited: 09 May 2008 10:12
    Last Modified: 28 Jul 2010 19:23


    Downloads per month over past year

    Repository Staff Only: item control page

    View Item

    University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©