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The Catholic Gentry and the Catholic Community of the City of York, 1536-1642: The focus of a Catholic county?

Bastow, Sarah L. (2001) The Catholic Gentry and the Catholic Community of the City of York, 1536-1642: The focus of a Catholic county? York Historian (18). pp. 13-22. ISSN 0309-3743

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    Abstract

    This essay explores the survival of Catholicism in Elizabethan and early-Stuart York, the links
    which sustained this and the commonality between Catholic gentry in the county and their fellow communicants
    in the city.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: UoA 62 (History) © The Yorkshire Architectural and York Archaeological Society 2001
    Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BR Christianity
    D History General and Old World > D History (General) > D111 Medieval History
    Schools: School of Music, Humanities and Media
    Related URLs:
    References:

    1. J.C.H. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City
    of York, 1558-1791 (Catholic Record Society
    [Monograph Series] 2, 1970); A.G. Dickens,
    Lollards and Protestants in the Diocese of York
    (Oxford, 1959); D.M. Palliser, Tudor York
    (Oxford, 1979).
    2. J.C.H. Aveling, Post Reformation Catholicism
    in East Yorkshire, 1558-1790 (York, 1960);
    The Catholic Recusants of the West Riding of
    Yorkshire 1558-1790 (Proceedings of the
    Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 10
    [6], 1963); Northern Catholics: The Catholic
    Recusants of the North Riding of Yorkshire
    1558-1790 (London, 1966); Catholic
    Recusancy in the City of York, 1558-1791
    (Catholic Record Society, [Monograph Series]
    2, 1970),
    3. A.G. Dickens, Lollards and Protestants in the
    Diocese of York 1509-1558 (London, 1959);
    The Marian Reaction in the Dioceses of York:
    The Clergy, {Part 1} and The Laity, {Part 1I}
    (Borthwick Institute of Historical Research
    Pamphlets II and 12, 1957 &1958).
    4. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
    York, p. 159.
    5. SP/15/77, summarised in CSPD Elizabeth:
    Addenda 1566-79, p. 139.
    6. J. Morris (ed.), The Troubles of our Catholic
    Forefathers related by themselves (London,
    1872-7).
    7. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
    York, p. 1.
    8. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
    York, p. 159.
    9. Palliser, Tudor York, p. 226.
    10. Palliser, Tudor York, p. 227.
    11. M.C. Cross and N. Vickers, Monks, Friars and
    Nuns in Sixteenth Century Yorkshire (YAS RS,
    150, 1995), pp. 62-5, 78.
    12. J.S. Purvis, The Elizabethan High Commission
    of York: The Act Book 156112-1580 (York,
    1979), p. 14.
    13. Borthwick Institute of Historical Research,
    York, Visitation Court Books 1568,
    R.VII A3/f. 83; Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in
    the City of York, p. 166.
    14. Borthwick, Visitation Court Books 1568,
    R.VI/A3/f.1l5, f.150, f.225; Visitation Court
    Books 1568-9, R.VI/A3/ f.34; Aveling,
    Catholic Recusancy in the City of York, pp.
    166-9.
    15. J. Barry and C. Brooks, The Middling Sort of
    People: Society and Politics in England, 1500-
    1800 (London, 1994); A. Esler, The Aspiring
    Mind of the Elizabethan Younger Generation
    (Durham, 1966); A. Everett, 'Social Mobility
    in Early Modem England', Past and Present,
    33 (1966), 56-73; J.H. Hexter, 'The Myth of
    the Middle Class in Tudor England', in
    Reappraisals in History (London, 1961), pp.
    71-116; Wilfrid Prest (ed.), The Professions in
    Early Modern England (London, 1987), chapters
    4 and 5. Barry and Brooks emphasize the
    professions as almost exclusively under the
    influence of the 'middle classes', whereas
    Hexter's earlier interpretation was emphatic in
    denying the existence of any concept of the
    middle class in early modem England.
    16. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
    York, p. 159; L.B. Wright, Middle Class
    Culture in Elizabethan England (Methuen,
    London, 1935, reprinted 1964), pp.l-18.
    17. Miscellanea XlI (Catholic Record Society, 22,
    1921), pp. 12-36. Those appearing on the
    diocesan return of recusants for 1577 who were
    listed and dwelling in the city of York were:
    Anne Wendell (butcher's wife), Margaret
    Clitheroe (butcher's wife), Isabell Porter (tailor's
    wife), Janet Geldarte, (butcher's wife),
    Margaret Tailor (tailor's wife), Elizabeth
    Dineleye (Mayor's wife), Lady Pacock (alderman's
    wife), Edward Beseley and Bridget his
    wife (gent.), William Hooton, Mary Hooton
    (draper and his wife), Dorothy Vavasour (doctor's
    wife), Emot Hallidaie (girdler's wife),
    Janet Geldart (butcher's wife - Lancelot),
    Frances Hall (draper's wife), Agnes
    Kitchynman (carpenter's wife), Alice
    Cowlinge (butcher's wife), Elizabeth Cowlinge
    (butcher's daughter), Jane Weste (servant to
    George Hall), Janet Bachelor (butcher's wife),
    Rayne (butcher's wife),
    Cockbume (butcher's wife), __ Fysher
    (butcher's wife), Anne Hewett and Margaret
    Hewwett, Gregorie Wilkinson, Agnes
    Wilkinson (hatter and his wife), Alice Abbaye
    (widow), William Wrighte, Anne Cooke (saddler's
    wife), Alice Lobleye (tanner's wife),
    William Bowman and his wife (locksmith),
    Grace Wood (gent's wife) John Aldcorne, Alice
    Aldcorne (tiler and his wife), Elizabeth
    Langton (currier's wife), Alice Mashroder
    (potter's wife), Alice Aldcorn (tiler's wife),
    Anne Godfreye (servant), Jane Plowman
    (widow), Margaret Plowman (daughter), Isabel
    Yeoman (servant), Katheryn Wildon (tailor's
    wife), Margaret Tessymond (saddler's wife),
    Alice Durham (barber's wife), John Wood (tailor),
    Janet Wilkinson, Elizabeth Wilkinson,
    __ Williamson (labourer's wife), Thomas
    Wood, Agnes Wood (labourer and his wife),
    Richard Braserton, Agnes Wygan, Katherine
    Gills.
    18. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
    p.56 (47), f. 52v. listed John Vavasour of
    Haselwood esq., Christopher Vavasour of
    Haselwood, gent., Sir Richard Stapleton, Knt.
    and Marmaduke Langdale of Saths Kerle.
    19. Purvis, The Elizabethan High Commission of
    York, p.56 (f. 47-52v). The men of York not named in the main text were: Wm. Tod of York,
    Goldsmith, Thomas Taylor, tailor, Thomas
    Southwork of York, tailors, Thomas Homer of
    York, armourer, John Wiseman of York, James
    Gibson of York, tailor, John Kirkby of York,
    bowyer, his surety, Anthony Vawse of York
    tapiter, John Acclam of York tiler, John Wright
    of York, apothecary, George Hall of York,
    draper, Thomas Lister of York, tailor, George
    Jackson of York, tanner, Francis Killingbeck of
    York, William Wood of York, gent. The women
    who appeared in the same entry were Alice
    wife of John Cowling of York, Ellen Geldart,
    Millicent wife of William Calvert of York,
    Ellen Mudd, Isabel wife of Peter Porter of
    York, tailor, Frances Ellis wife Humph. Ellis of
    York, tailor, Jane Preston, __ wife of John
    Wiseman of York.
    20. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
    p.31,(6).
    21. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
    p.70 (74 and 74v.)
    22. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
    p.31(4).
    23. E. Peacock, A List of Roman Catholics in
    Yorkshire in 1604, p. -
    24. M. Claridge, Margaret Clitherow 1556-1586
    (London, 1966), pp. 131-3.
    25. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
    York, p. 159.
    26. Peacock, Catholics in Yorkshire 1604, pp. 56-
    60.
    27. Miscellanea Xll (Catholic Record Society, 22,
    1921), p. 23 & n.; Peacock, Catholics in
    Yorkshire 1604, p. 59. Christopher Harbarte
    was on the list for Walmgate ward. Elizabeth
    Dynley did not die until 1599 and was buried at
    St. Michael le Belfry. She was still named as
    Elizabeth Dynley despite her re-marriage and
    listed as a recusant.
    28. Peacock, Catholics in Yorkshire 1604, p. 59.
    29. M.C. Barnett, 'Medicine and the Health
    Services in York' in A. Stacpoole (ed.), The
    Noble City of York, (York, 1972), p. 895.
    30. Purvis, The Elizabethan High Commission of
    York, p. 30.
    31. J. Bossy, The English Catholic Community
    1570-1850 (London, 1975); C. Haigh,
    Reformation and Resistance in Tudor
    Lancashire (Cambrigde, 1975).
    32. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
    York, p. 84. These are the two families who
    Aveling holds up as maintaining Catholicism
    within the City.
    33. M. Gandy, 'Ordinary Catholics in Mid-
    Seventeenth Century London', in Catholics of
    Parish and Town 1558-1778, ed. M.B.
    Rowlands (CRS Monograph Series [5], 1999),
    p.157.
    York Historian 18
    34. Memoranda Book of Richard Cholmley, p. 113.
    35. Peacock, Catholics in Yorkshire 1604, p. 56-
    60; M. Pelling, 'Medical Practice in the Early
    Modern England: Trade or Profession?', in W.
    Prest (ed.), The Professions in Early Modern
    England (London, 1987), pp. 90-128. Many
    parishes failed to return numbers, especially in
    the North Riding due to the outbreak of plague.
    36. CSPD 1566-79, Addenda, pp. 223-4.
    37. North Yorkshire County Record Office,
    ZQGIMIC 1456, f. 92v.; Memoranda Book of
    Richard Cholmley, p. 183.
    38. Memoranda Book of Richard Cholmley, pp. 85,
    158, 170, 183, 195,229. The 'physicians' consulted
    included a Mr. Blackburn, Jane
    Pennythorne of Sherburn 'formley called the
    skylfull woman of Marshland', Mr. Wendell,
    Doctor Fryer and Dr. Lapworth of Oxford
    whom he lists as his physician.
    39. Memoranda Book of Richard Cholmley, p. ix.
    40. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission, p. 31
    (3v.).
    41. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
    p. 70 (74).
    42. Borthwick, High Commission Book 1574-6, ff.
    27v. ff; Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the
    City of York 1558-1791 (Catholic Record
    Society [Record Series], 2, 1970), p. 42.
    43. J. Eales, Women in Early Modern England,
    1500-1700 (London, 1998), p. 72; S.
    Mendleson and P. Crawford, Women in Early
    Modern England 1550-1720 (Oxford, 1998), p.
    153. Medleson and Crawford state that by the
    early eighteenth century some aristocratic
    London women were attended by male doctors
    in childbirth but that 'only adult women were
    present at the beginning of our period, and
    even after the incursion of the male midwife,
    the majority of women gave birth in an allfemale
    environment.'
    44. Borthwick, High Commission, First Act Book
    RVII, AI, 3; Purvis, Elizabethan High
    Commission, p. 30.
    45. Borthwick, High Commission, First Act Book
    RVII, AI, 3; Purvis, Elizabethan High
    Commission, p. 30.
    46. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission, p. 81
    (101). Bonds dated 17 and 24 April 1582.
    47. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Calendar
    of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Salisbury,
    (London, 1899), VII, 514-6.
    48. Salisbury MSS, VII, 514-5.
    49. Salisbury MSS, X, 280-1.
    50. C. Talbot, Miscellanea Recusant Records
    (CRS, 53,1960), pp. 276-7.
    51. J.C.H. Aveling (ed.) Miscellanea: Recusant
    Papers of the Meynell Family (CRS, 56,1964),
    p.lO.
    52. Claridge, Margaret Clitherow, p. 131.

    Depositing User: Sara Taylor
    Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2007
    Last Modified: 28 Jul 2010 19:21
    URI: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/469

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