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The Catholic Gentry and the Catholic Community of the City of York, 1536-1642: The focus of a Catholic county?

Bastow, Sarah L. (2001) The Catholic Gentry and the Catholic Community of the City of York, 1536-1642: The focus of a Catholic county? York Historian (18). pp. 13-22. ISSN 0309-3743

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Abstract

This essay explores the survival of Catholicism in Elizabethan and early-Stuart York, the links
which sustained this and the commonality between Catholic gentry in the county and their fellow communicants
in the city.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: UoA 62 (History) © The Yorkshire Architectural and York Archaeological Society 2001
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BR Christianity
D History General and Old World > D History (General) > D111 Medieval History
Schools: School of Music, Humanities and Media
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References:

1. J.C.H. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City
of York, 1558-1791 (Catholic Record Society
[Monograph Series] 2, 1970); A.G. Dickens,
Lollards and Protestants in the Diocese of York
(Oxford, 1959); D.M. Palliser, Tudor York
(Oxford, 1979).
2. J.C.H. Aveling, Post Reformation Catholicism
in East Yorkshire, 1558-1790 (York, 1960);
The Catholic Recusants of the West Riding of
Yorkshire 1558-1790 (Proceedings of the
Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 10
[6], 1963); Northern Catholics: The Catholic
Recusants of the North Riding of Yorkshire
1558-1790 (London, 1966); Catholic
Recusancy in the City of York, 1558-1791
(Catholic Record Society, [Monograph Series]
2, 1970),
3. A.G. Dickens, Lollards and Protestants in the
Diocese of York 1509-1558 (London, 1959);
The Marian Reaction in the Dioceses of York:
The Clergy, {Part 1} and The Laity, {Part 1I}
(Borthwick Institute of Historical Research
Pamphlets II and 12, 1957 &1958).
4. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
York, p. 159.
5. SP/15/77, summarised in CSPD Elizabeth:
Addenda 1566-79, p. 139.
6. J. Morris (ed.), The Troubles of our Catholic
Forefathers related by themselves (London,
1872-7).
7. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
York, p. 1.
8. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
York, p. 159.
9. Palliser, Tudor York, p. 226.
10. Palliser, Tudor York, p. 227.
11. M.C. Cross and N. Vickers, Monks, Friars and
Nuns in Sixteenth Century Yorkshire (YAS RS,
150, 1995), pp. 62-5, 78.
12. J.S. Purvis, The Elizabethan High Commission
of York: The Act Book 156112-1580 (York,
1979), p. 14.
13. Borthwick Institute of Historical Research,
York, Visitation Court Books 1568,
R.VII A3/f. 83; Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in
the City of York, p. 166.
14. Borthwick, Visitation Court Books 1568,
R.VI/A3/f.1l5, f.150, f.225; Visitation Court
Books 1568-9, R.VI/A3/ f.34; Aveling,
Catholic Recusancy in the City of York, pp.
166-9.
15. J. Barry and C. Brooks, The Middling Sort of
People: Society and Politics in England, 1500-
1800 (London, 1994); A. Esler, The Aspiring
Mind of the Elizabethan Younger Generation
(Durham, 1966); A. Everett, 'Social Mobility
in Early Modem England', Past and Present,
33 (1966), 56-73; J.H. Hexter, 'The Myth of
the Middle Class in Tudor England', in
Reappraisals in History (London, 1961), pp.
71-116; Wilfrid Prest (ed.), The Professions in
Early Modern England (London, 1987), chapters
4 and 5. Barry and Brooks emphasize the
professions as almost exclusively under the
influence of the 'middle classes', whereas
Hexter's earlier interpretation was emphatic in
denying the existence of any concept of the
middle class in early modem England.
16. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
York, p. 159; L.B. Wright, Middle Class
Culture in Elizabethan England (Methuen,
London, 1935, reprinted 1964), pp.l-18.
17. Miscellanea XlI (Catholic Record Society, 22,
1921), pp. 12-36. Those appearing on the
diocesan return of recusants for 1577 who were
listed and dwelling in the city of York were:
Anne Wendell (butcher's wife), Margaret
Clitheroe (butcher's wife), Isabell Porter (tailor's
wife), Janet Geldarte, (butcher's wife),
Margaret Tailor (tailor's wife), Elizabeth
Dineleye (Mayor's wife), Lady Pacock (alderman's
wife), Edward Beseley and Bridget his
wife (gent.), William Hooton, Mary Hooton
(draper and his wife), Dorothy Vavasour (doctor's
wife), Emot Hallidaie (girdler's wife),
Janet Geldart (butcher's wife - Lancelot),
Frances Hall (draper's wife), Agnes
Kitchynman (carpenter's wife), Alice
Cowlinge (butcher's wife), Elizabeth Cowlinge
(butcher's daughter), Jane Weste (servant to
George Hall), Janet Bachelor (butcher's wife),
Rayne (butcher's wife),
Cockbume (butcher's wife), __ Fysher
(butcher's wife), Anne Hewett and Margaret
Hewwett, Gregorie Wilkinson, Agnes
Wilkinson (hatter and his wife), Alice Abbaye
(widow), William Wrighte, Anne Cooke (saddler's
wife), Alice Lobleye (tanner's wife),
William Bowman and his wife (locksmith),
Grace Wood (gent's wife) John Aldcorne, Alice
Aldcorne (tiler and his wife), Elizabeth
Langton (currier's wife), Alice Mashroder
(potter's wife), Alice Aldcorn (tiler's wife),
Anne Godfreye (servant), Jane Plowman
(widow), Margaret Plowman (daughter), Isabel
Yeoman (servant), Katheryn Wildon (tailor's
wife), Margaret Tessymond (saddler's wife),
Alice Durham (barber's wife), John Wood (tailor),
Janet Wilkinson, Elizabeth Wilkinson,
__ Williamson (labourer's wife), Thomas
Wood, Agnes Wood (labourer and his wife),
Richard Braserton, Agnes Wygan, Katherine
Gills.
18. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
p.56 (47), f. 52v. listed John Vavasour of
Haselwood esq., Christopher Vavasour of
Haselwood, gent., Sir Richard Stapleton, Knt.
and Marmaduke Langdale of Saths Kerle.
19. Purvis, The Elizabethan High Commission of
York, p.56 (f. 47-52v). The men of York not named in the main text were: Wm. Tod of York,
Goldsmith, Thomas Taylor, tailor, Thomas
Southwork of York, tailors, Thomas Homer of
York, armourer, John Wiseman of York, James
Gibson of York, tailor, John Kirkby of York,
bowyer, his surety, Anthony Vawse of York
tapiter, John Acclam of York tiler, John Wright
of York, apothecary, George Hall of York,
draper, Thomas Lister of York, tailor, George
Jackson of York, tanner, Francis Killingbeck of
York, William Wood of York, gent. The women
who appeared in the same entry were Alice
wife of John Cowling of York, Ellen Geldart,
Millicent wife of William Calvert of York,
Ellen Mudd, Isabel wife of Peter Porter of
York, tailor, Frances Ellis wife Humph. Ellis of
York, tailor, Jane Preston, __ wife of John
Wiseman of York.
20. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
p.31,(6).
21. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
p.70 (74 and 74v.)
22. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
p.31(4).
23. E. Peacock, A List of Roman Catholics in
Yorkshire in 1604, p. -
24. M. Claridge, Margaret Clitherow 1556-1586
(London, 1966), pp. 131-3.
25. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
York, p. 159.
26. Peacock, Catholics in Yorkshire 1604, pp. 56-
60.
27. Miscellanea Xll (Catholic Record Society, 22,
1921), p. 23 & n.; Peacock, Catholics in
Yorkshire 1604, p. 59. Christopher Harbarte
was on the list for Walmgate ward. Elizabeth
Dynley did not die until 1599 and was buried at
St. Michael le Belfry. She was still named as
Elizabeth Dynley despite her re-marriage and
listed as a recusant.
28. Peacock, Catholics in Yorkshire 1604, p. 59.
29. M.C. Barnett, 'Medicine and the Health
Services in York' in A. Stacpoole (ed.), The
Noble City of York, (York, 1972), p. 895.
30. Purvis, The Elizabethan High Commission of
York, p. 30.
31. J. Bossy, The English Catholic Community
1570-1850 (London, 1975); C. Haigh,
Reformation and Resistance in Tudor
Lancashire (Cambrigde, 1975).
32. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of
York, p. 84. These are the two families who
Aveling holds up as maintaining Catholicism
within the City.
33. M. Gandy, 'Ordinary Catholics in Mid-
Seventeenth Century London', in Catholics of
Parish and Town 1558-1778, ed. M.B.
Rowlands (CRS Monograph Series [5], 1999),
p.157.
York Historian 18
34. Memoranda Book of Richard Cholmley, p. 113.
35. Peacock, Catholics in Yorkshire 1604, p. 56-
60; M. Pelling, 'Medical Practice in the Early
Modern England: Trade or Profession?', in W.
Prest (ed.), The Professions in Early Modern
England (London, 1987), pp. 90-128. Many
parishes failed to return numbers, especially in
the North Riding due to the outbreak of plague.
36. CSPD 1566-79, Addenda, pp. 223-4.
37. North Yorkshire County Record Office,
ZQGIMIC 1456, f. 92v.; Memoranda Book of
Richard Cholmley, p. 183.
38. Memoranda Book of Richard Cholmley, pp. 85,
158, 170, 183, 195,229. The 'physicians' consulted
included a Mr. Blackburn, Jane
Pennythorne of Sherburn 'formley called the
skylfull woman of Marshland', Mr. Wendell,
Doctor Fryer and Dr. Lapworth of Oxford
whom he lists as his physician.
39. Memoranda Book of Richard Cholmley, p. ix.
40. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission, p. 31
(3v.).
41. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission of York,
p. 70 (74).
42. Borthwick, High Commission Book 1574-6, ff.
27v. ff; Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the
City of York 1558-1791 (Catholic Record
Society [Record Series], 2, 1970), p. 42.
43. J. Eales, Women in Early Modern England,
1500-1700 (London, 1998), p. 72; S.
Mendleson and P. Crawford, Women in Early
Modern England 1550-1720 (Oxford, 1998), p.
153. Medleson and Crawford state that by the
early eighteenth century some aristocratic
London women were attended by male doctors
in childbirth but that 'only adult women were
present at the beginning of our period, and
even after the incursion of the male midwife,
the majority of women gave birth in an allfemale
environment.'
44. Borthwick, High Commission, First Act Book
RVII, AI, 3; Purvis, Elizabethan High
Commission, p. 30.
45. Borthwick, High Commission, First Act Book
RVII, AI, 3; Purvis, Elizabethan High
Commission, p. 30.
46. Purvis, Elizabethan High Commission, p. 81
(101). Bonds dated 17 and 24 April 1582.
47. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Calendar
of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Salisbury,
(London, 1899), VII, 514-6.
48. Salisbury MSS, VII, 514-5.
49. Salisbury MSS, X, 280-1.
50. C. Talbot, Miscellanea Recusant Records
(CRS, 53,1960), pp. 276-7.
51. J.C.H. Aveling (ed.) Miscellanea: Recusant
Papers of the Meynell Family (CRS, 56,1964),
p.lO.
52. Claridge, Margaret Clitherow, p. 131.

Depositing User: Sara Taylor
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2007
Last Modified: 28 Jul 2010 18:21
URI: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/469

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