1. Reproduced in O. Byrne (ed), State of Play: The Theatre and Cultural Identity in
20th Century Ulster (Belfast: The Linen Hall Library 2001) p.69.2. See L. Dowds, ‘Public Attitudes and Identity’ in Nations and Regions: The
Dynamics of Devolution Quarterly Monitoring Programme (November 2002)
pp.167; and J.W. McAuley, ‘Unionism’s Last Stand? Contemporary Unionist
Politics and Identity in Northern Ireland’, The Global Review of Ethnopolitics 3=1
3. On 5 January 2004, three newly elected Ulster Unionist Party MLAs ‘defected’
to the DUP increasing the DUP representation in any new assembly to 33. See
‘Donaldson announces DUP move’, BBC News, http:==news.bbc.co.uk=go=
pr=fr==1=hi=northern ireland=3368223.stm [downloaded 5 January 2004].
4. Progressive Unionist Party, Election Manifesto (Belfast: PUP 2003).
5. See, for example, D. Boulton, The UVF 196673: An Anatomy of Loyalist Rebellion
(Dublin: Torc Books 1973); J. Cusack and H. McDonald, UVF (Poolbeg:
Dublin 1997); J.W. McAuley, ‘Cuchulainn and an RPG-7: The Ideology and
Politics of the UDA’, in E. Hughes (ed), Culture and Politics in Northern Ireland
(Milton Keynes: Open University Press 1991) pp.4568; ‘The Protestant Working
Class and the State in Northern Ireland Since 1930: A Problematic Relationship’,
in S. Hutton and P. Stewart (eds), Ireland’s Histories (London: Routledge
1991) pp.11429; The Politics of Identity: A Loyalist Community in Belfast
(Aldershot: Avebury Press 1994); ‘Not a Game of Cowboys and Indians’
the Ulster Defence Association in the 1990s, in A. O’Day (ed), Terrorism’s Laboratory.
The Case of Northern Ireland. (Dartmouth: Aldershot 1995) pp.13758;
‘From Loyal Soldiers to Political Spokespersons: A Political History of a
Loyalist Paramilitary Group in Northern Ireland’, E´ tudes Irlandaises (1996)
p.21; S. Nelson, Ulster’s Uncertain Defenders: Loyalists and the Northern Ireland
Conflict (Belfast: Appletree Press 1984); and P. Taylor, Loyalists (London:
6. C. Coulter, Contemporary Northern Irish Society: An Introduction (London:
Pluto 1999); and J. Todd, ‘Two Traditions in Unionist Political Culture’, Irish
Political Studies 2(1987) pp.126.
7. D. Ervine, ‘No Surrender’, Corrymeela Connections 2=1 (2000) pp.810.
8. Presbyterian Church in Ireland, The Aims, Ideals and Methods of Irish Loyalism
and the Attitude of Irish Presbyterians to It. Confidential Study Document.
(Belfast: Presbyterian Church no date).
9. D. Miller, Queen’s Rebels: Ulster Loyalism in Historical Perspective (Dublin: Gill
and Macmillan 1978).
10. G.J. Mitchell, Making Peace. The Inside Story of the Making of the Good Friday
Agreement (London: William Heinemann 1999).
11. P. Shirlow andM.McGovern (eds),Who Are The People? Unionism, Protestantism
and Loyalism in Northern Ireland (London: Pluto Press 1997).
12. A. Finlayson, ‘Loyalist Political Identity After the Peace’, Capital and Class 69
(1999) pp.4776; J.W. McAuley, ‘Divided Loyalists, Divided Loyalties: Conflict
and Continuities in Contemporary Unionist Ideology’ in C. Gilligan and
J. Tonge (eds), Peace or War? (Aldershot: Ashgate 1997) pp.3753; and J.W.
McAuley, ‘Very British Rebels’: Politics and Discourse Within Contemporary
Ulster Unionism’, in Paul Bagguley and Jeff Hearn (eds), Transforming Politics:
Power and Resistance (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press 1999) pp.106-25. 13. McAuley, The Politics of Identity (note 5).
14. J. Ruane and J. Todd, The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power,
Conflict and Emancipation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1996)
15. See McAuley, ‘Cuchulainn and an RPG-7’ (note 5); and Nelson (note 5).
16. A. Bairner, ‘Paramilitarism’, in A. Aughey and D. Morrow (eds), Northern
Ireland Politics (London: Longman 1996) pp.15972.
17. M. Sutton, Bear in Mind These Dead . . . An Index of Deaths from the Conflict in
Ireland 19691993 (Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications 1994).
18. D. McKittrick, S. Kelters, B. Feeney and C. Thornton, Lost Lives: The Stories of
the Men, Women and Children Who Died as a Result of the Northern Ireland
Troubles (Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing 1999).
19. McAuley, ‘Not a Game of Cowboy and Indians’ (note 5).
20. McAuley, ‘From Loyal Soldiers to Political Spokespersons’ (note 5).
21. Committee on the Administration of Justice, A Bill of Rights for Northern
Ireland Throughout the Years The Views of the Political Parties (Belfast:
Shanway Press 2003); and J. Mullin, ‘Death Squad Conspiracy: Army Link to
UDA Assassinations’, The Guardian, 30 March 1998.
22. McKittrick et al (note 18).
23. McAuley, ‘Cuchulainn and an RPG-7’ (note 5) p.45.
24. G. Gillespie, ‘Loyalists Since 1972’, in D. G. Boyce and A. O’Day (eds) Defenders
of the Union: A Survey of British and Irish Unionism Since 1801 (London: Routledge
2001) pp.25170; J.W. McAuley and S. Hislop, ‘‘‘Many Roads Forward’’:
Politics and Ideology Within the Progressive Unionist Party’, E´ tudes Irlandaises
25=1 (2000) pp.17392; and Nelson (note 5).
25. R. Garland, Gusty Spence (Belfast: Blackstaff Press 2001); S. McKay, ‘Diverging
From the Shadow of the Gunmen’, The Sunday Tribune, 26 May 1996;
H. Sinnerton, David Ervine: Uncharted Waters (Dingle: Brandon 2002); G.
Spence, ‘Speech to the PUP Conference’, 11 February 1995, document in possession
of the author; J. Stevenson, ‘We Wrecked the Place’: Contemplating an
End to the Northern Irish Troubles (London: The Free Press 1996) pp.12958;
D. Whitfield, ‘Gusty Spence - Heretic on the Shankill’, Morning Star, 7 February
1997; and Taylor (note 5).
26. See Stevenson (note 25).
27. See Taylor (note 5) p.141.
28. Interview with author, Belfast 2000.
29. See, for example, M. Braid, ‘The Protestant Pretenders’, The Independent, Section
Two, 8 March 1995; M. Gallagher, ‘Beyond the Bullwark? The Fringe
Loyalist Parties and the Future’, An Phoblacht=Republican News, 19 January
1995; and B. White, ‘A Loyalist’s View from the Hub’, Belfast Telegraph, 5 October
30. See McAuley and Hislop (note 24); Progressive Unionist Party, Agreeing to Differ
for Progress (Belfast: PUP May 1985); and Sharing Responsibility (Belfast: PUP
31. Cusack and McDonald (note 5) p.254.32. Progressive Unionist Party, ‘How Long are You Prepared to Wait for Benefits to
Our Community’, Election Communication. (Belfast: PUP 2003).
33. See R. McCartney, Reflections on Liberty, Democracy and the Union (Dublin:
Maunsel and Company 2001).
34. Cited in Mitchell (note 10) pp.1856.
35. SeeMcAuley ‘Cuchulainn and an RPG-7’ (note 5); The Politics of Identity (note 5);
and ‘Not a Game of Cowboy and Indians’ (note 5).
36. Coulter (note 6) p.235.
37. Progressive Unionist Party, Manifesto for the Forum Election (Belfast: PUP
1996); ‘Dealing with Reality’, Press Statement Issued by Billy Hutchinson
(Belfast: PUP 31 March 1996); and ‘Support the Progressive Unionists’, Forum
Election Communication (Belfast: PUP 1996).
38. See J.W. McAuley and J. Tonge, ‘The Role of Extra-Constitutional Parties in
the Northern Ireland Assembly’, Final Report to the Economic and Social
Research Council: ESRC Award L327253058 (2001); ‘Over the Rainbow?: Relationships
Between Loyalists and Republicans in the Northern Ireland Assembly’,
tudes Irlandaises 28=1 (2003) pp.17798.
39. Committee on the Administration of Justice (note 21) pp.101.
40. Interview with author, Belfast, 1998.
41. Cusack and McDonald (note 5) p.117.
42. Progressive Unionist Party (note 32).
43. D. Purvis, ‘North West Freedom Address’, Gay Pride North West, Progressive
Unionist Party, http:==www.pup.org=(downloaded 10 November 1998).
44. E. Ward, Press Statement: Free Presbyterian Church Moral Committee in a
Moral Dilemma (Belfast: PUP 6 February 1998).
45. Progressive Unionist Party (note 32).
46. Shankill Think Tank, A New Beginning (Newtownabbey: Island Publications
47. Royal Ulster Constabulary, Chief Constable’s Annual Report, 19992000
(Belfast: RUC 2000); and R. Wilson and R. Wilford, Northern Ireland: A Route
to Stability? (ESRC Research Programme on Devolution & Constitutional
Change: no date) p.5.
48. Police Service of Northern Ireland, Report of the Chief Constable 200203
(Belfast: PSNI 2003)
49. See S. Walker, ‘Paramilitaries Reap £18m From Rackets’, BBC website,
http:==news.bbc.co.uk=northern ireland (downloaded 2 July 2002).
50. See R. Eames, ‘Loyalists Must End Criminality’, http:==news.bbc.co.uk=go=pr=
fr==1=hi=northern ireland=3021452.stm (downloaded 26 June 2003); A. Silke,
‘The Lords of Discipline: The Methods and Motives of Paramilitary Vigilantism
in Northern Ireland’, Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 7=2 (1998)
pp.12156; ‘In Defense of the Realm: Financing Loyalist Terrorism in Northern
Ireland—Part One: Extortion and Blackmail’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism
21=4 (1998) pp.33161; ‘Ragged Justice: Loyalist Vigilantism in Northern Ireland’,
Terrorism and Political Violence 11=3 (1999) pp.131; ‘Drink, Drugs,
and Rock’n’Roll: Financing Loyalist Terrorism in Northern Ireland—Part Two’,Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 23=2 (2000) pp.10727; and E. Moloney, ‘Criminality
Dominates Loyalist Paramilitarism’, Sunday Tribune, 7 January 2001.
51. BBC News, ‘Loyalist Commission Loyalists Should End Rackets’, http:==
news.bbc.co.uk=go=pr=fr==2=hi=uk news=northern ireland=3193050.stm (downloaded
15 October 2003).
52. C. Anderson, The Billy Boy: The Life and Death of LVF Leader Billy Wright
(Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing 2002).
53. There are various occasional publications supporting the LVF such as, The
Volunteer; Leading The Way; and The Wright View.
54. B. Walker, ‘LVF Threat to Trimble During Poll’, Belfast Telegraph, 30 April 2003.
55. Gillespie (note 24) p.268.
56. C. Persic and S. Bloomer, The Feud and the Fury. . .The Response of the
Community Sector to the Shankill Feud, August 2000 (Belfast: Springfield Intercommunity
Development Project no date).
57. D. Ervine, ‘Loyalist Confidence in Decline’ BBC website http:==news.bbc.co.uk=
northern ireland (downloaded 10 May 2002).
58. David Ervine, cited in Combat (January 2003) p.4.
59. D. McKittrick, ‘What Makes the Loyalists Angry is Seeing the Other Side Doing
So Well’, The Independent, 17 January 2002.
60. D. Murray, Protestant Perceptions of the Peace Process in Northern Ireland
(University of Limerick: Centre for Peace and Development Studies 2000).
61. M. Hall, An Uncertain Future: An Exploration by Protestant Community Activists
(Newtownabbey: Island Publications 2002) p.3.
62. See, for example, reports in The Guardian (4 January 2002 and 7 January 2003).
63. See P. Shirlow, ‘Segregation in Belfast Since the Peace Process’, Paper presented
to the Royal Geographical Society Conference, Belfast, 5 January 2002; ‘Fear,
Mobility and Living in the Ardoyne and Upper Ardoyne Communities’, Mapping
the Spaces of Fear Research Team, University of Ulster, http:==cain.ulst.ac.
uk=issues=community=survey.htm (downloaded 10 June 2002); and ‘Who Fears
to Speak’: Fear, Mobility, and Ethno-Sectarianism in the Two ‘Ardoynes’, The
Global Review of Ethnopolitics 3=1 (2003) pp.7691.
64. See S. Dunn and V. Morgan, Protestant Alienation in Northern Ireland. A
Preliminary Survey (Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of
Ulster 1994); and Shirlow and McGovern (note 11).
65. See S. Breen, ‘Survey Shows Unionists Divided Over Talks’, The Irish Times,
11 September 1997; and M. Hall, At the Crossroads? (Newtownabbey: Island
66. The survey, conducted by Colin Irwin of the Institute of Irish Studies at Queen’s
University, Belfast, was first published in Belfast Telegraph on 10 January 1998.
67. Dowds (note 2).
68. For fuller results, see C. Irwin, ‘Devolution and the State of the Northern Ireland
Peace Process’, The Global Review of Ethnopolitics 2=34 (2003) pp.7191.
69. News Letter, 23 February 1995.
70. Orange Standard, 1 April 1999.
71. Democratic Unionist Party, Fair Deal Manifesto 2003 (Belfast: DUP 2003).
72. Cited in Andersonstown News, 26 June 1996, p.10.73. McAuley ‘Unionism’s last Stand?’ (note 2).
74. CAIN Web Service ‘Assembly Election (NI): Results 26 November 2003’, http:==
cain.ulst.ac.uk=issues=politics=election=ra2003.htm (downloaded 4 December
75. See, for example, Ballymacarret Think Tank, Puppets No More (Newtownabbey:
Island Pamphlets 1999); M. Hall, Beyond the Fife and Drum (Belfast: Island
Pamphlets 1995); and Reinforcing Powerlessness: The Hidden Dimension to the
Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’ (Belfast: Island Pamphlets 1996).
76. See D. McKittrick, ‘Trust Drains Away’, The Independent, 6 October 2002; and
B. White, ‘Unionists Believe Good Friday Agreement is All Bad’, The Herald,
25 July 2002.