Search:
Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Innovation of a design method (MoIST) that incorporates non-traditional 'soft' systems science into traditional 'hard' information systems design

Nwako, Judith (2007) Innovation of a design method (MoIST) that incorporates non-traditional 'soft' systems science into traditional 'hard' information systems design. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

[img] PDF
Download (3MB)

Abstract

The research explores ways of making the information systems development process
more effective. The thesis documents an original design method. This is the method
of incorporating Systems thinking into Information Systems Design (MoIST). The
thesis demonstrates that MoIST improves information systems design and adds to
the effective arsenal of methods that already exist.
The Computer Science literature has identified some weaknesses in the software
development methodologies. These weaknesses include premature design decisions
taken before major requirements are known. Another is the dearth of options for
applying Systems Science and information systems design techniques in a UMLbased
context. It was found that these weaknesses sometimes resulted in software
failures. These findings have been confirmed in the empirical and the evaluation
portion of the research.
The essence of the thesis is that appropriate software development strategies may
be chosen at various points in a project. The choice of strategy is based upon the
value of particular factors. These factors include confidence in requirements,
development environment structuredness, user types and developer types.
In order to achieve the research aims, the MoIST is utilised to preserve the
methodological strengths of the hard systems engineering paradigm. It
simultaneously attempts to minimise its weaknesses by combining it with a systems
science approach called Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The research
incorporates this non-traditional ‘soft’ Systems Thinking into traditional ‘hard’
Information Systems Design. The two main contributions of the thesis are the
transformation of SSM conceptual models into UML use case diagrams and activity
diagrams. Another is the creation of MoIST Project Option Selection Tool (MoPros).
This MoIST method has been tested empirically by utilising it in a complex,
unstructured setting in a School of Computing and Engineering. Based on the
theoretical and practical work conducted, it is concluded that the MoIST method is
effective in several ways. It provides coherence and structure to complex software
projects and can help to facilitate decisions about improvement strategies. It also
successfully incorporates the results of SSM analysis into requirement specification based on the UML. The MoIST method is offered as a viable option to add to the
existing development alternatives for successful software development.

▼ Jump to Download Statistics
Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: © The Author 2007
Uncontrolled Keywords: innovaton design MoIST soft systems science hard information
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Schools: School of Computing and Engineering
References:

Ackoff, RL, 1998, A Systemic View of Transformational Leadership, Systemic
Practice and Action Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1998
Abdel-Hamid, T. K., and S. E. Madnick. 1990. The Elusive Silver Lining: How We Fail
to Learn from Software Development Failures. Sloan Management Review 32(1): 39-
48.
Ambler, S.W. (2002) Agile Modeling: Effective Practices for Extreme Programming
and the Unified Process. John Wiley & Sons
Ambler, S, 2001, The Object Primer – The Application Developer’s Guide to Object
Orientation and the UML, 2nd Ed, Cambridge University Press
Archer, R and Bowker, P, 1995, BPR Consulting: an evaluation of the methods
employed, Business Process Re-engineering & Management Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2,
pp. 28-46
Armarego, J, 1999, Educating Requirements Engineers in Australia: A Critical Study,
http://eng.murdoch.edu.au/~jocelyn/papers/phd_proposal.doc
Armarego, J and Clarke, S, 2002, Preparing Students for the future: learning creative
software development – setting the stage
http://eng.murdoch.edu.au/~jocelyn/papers/armarego.herdsa.pdf
Avison, D.E., Baskerville, R. and Myers, M.D, 2001 "Controlling action research
projects," Information Technology & People (14:1), 2001, pp. 28-45
Avison, D and Fitzgerald, G, 1995, Information Ssytems Development:
Methodologies, techniques and Tools, (2nd ed) McGraw-Hill, London
Avison, D.E. and Wood-Harper A.T. (1990) Multiview: An exploration in Information
Systems Development., McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead.
Barton, J, Emery, M, Flood,RL, Selsky, JW and Wolstenholme, E, 2004, A Maturing
of Systems thinking? Evidence from three perspectives, Systemic Practice and
Action Research, Vol.17, No.1, February 2004
Baskerville, R., and Myers, M.D.2004, "Special Issue on Action Research in
Information Systems: Making IS Research Relevant to Practice-Foreword," MIS
Quarterly (28:3) 2004, pp 329-335.
Baskerville, R. and Pries-Heje, J. 1999, "Grounded action research: a method for
understanding IT in practice," Accounting, Management and Information
Technologies (9:1), 1999, pp. 1-23.
Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T. 1998, "Diversity in information systems
action research methods," European Journal of Information Systems (7), 1998, pp.
90-107.Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T.1996, "A Critical Perspective on Action
Research as a Method for Information Systems Research," Journal of Information
Technology (11), 1996, pp. 235-246.
Batra, D and Marakas, GM.,1995, Conceptual data modelling in theory and practice.
European Journal of Information Systems. 4, 185-193
BBC News, July 8, 2004
news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3876507.stm
Beck, K., Extreme Programming Explained – Embrace Change. Reading, M.A.:
Addison-Wesley. 2000
Bell, S and Wood-Harper, T (2003), How To setup Information Systems: A nonspecialist’s
guide to the Multiview Approach, Earthscan Publications Ltd.
Bell, S., and Wood-Harper, A.T., 1992, Rapid Information Systems Development,
McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, 1992.
Bennett, S., McRobb, S. and Farmer, R., Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and
Design, (2nd Ed.), McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, 2002.
Bennett, S, Skelton and Lunn, K, 2001, Schaum’s Outline of UML, McGraw-Hill
Bennett, P, Ackermann, F, Eden,C and Williams, T, 1997, Analysing Litigation and
Negotiation: Using a Combined Methodology , Multimethodology:The Theory and
Practice of combining management sciences Methodologies. Eds Mingers, J and Gill,
A, Wiley & Sons
Bergvall-Kareborn, B, Mirijamdotter, A and Basden, A, 2004, Basic Principles of SSM
Modelling: An Examination of CATWOE from a Soft Perspective, Systemic Practice
and Action Research, Vol. 17, No. 2, April, 2004
Bergvall-Kareborn, B, 2002, Qualifying Function in SSM Modelling – A Case Study,
Systemic Practice and Action Research, Vol. 15, No. 4, August 2002
Bergvall-Kareborn, B., 2002, A Multi-Modal Approach to Soft Systems Methodology,
Doctoral dissertation, Department of Business Administration and Social Science,
Lulea University of Technology, 2002.
Boggs, W and Boggs, M, Mastering UML with Rational Rose, Sybex, 2002(electronic
version)
Booch, G., 1998, Best of Booch – Designing Strategies for Object Technology,
Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Booch, G., 1994, Object Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications (2nd Ed.),
Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1994.
Booch, G, Rumbaugh, J and Jacobson, I, 1998, The Unified Modelling Language
User Guide, Addison-Wesley Professional Bouzeghoub, M, Gardarin, G,Valduriez, 1997, Object Technology:Concepts and
Methods, International Thomson Computer Press
Bowl, M, 2003, Non-traditional Entrants to Higher Education: They Talk About People
Like Me, Trentham Books.
Brocklesby, J,1997, Becoming Multimethodology Literate: An Assessment of the
Cognitive difficulties of working across paradigms, Multimethodology:The Theory and
Practice of combining management sciences Methodologies. Eds Mingers, J and Gill,
A, Wiley & Sons
Brooks, Frederick, Jnr, 1995, The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software
Engineering, 20th Anniversary Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional.
Brown-Syed, C., 1993, Soft, Appreciative, and General Systems: Idealism in Action,
Third Canadian Conference on Foundations and Applications of General Science
Theory, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1993
Bruegge, B & Dutoit, 2000, A, Object-Oriented Software Engineering – Conquering
Complex and Changing Systems, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000.
Bryant, A, 1996, Introduction and Overview -The Projects of Methods Integration,
Proceedings of the Methods Integration Workshop, Leeds, 25-26 March, Bryant, A &
Semmens (Eds), Electronic Workshops in Computing, Springer
Bubenko, J. (1995). Challenges in Requirements Engineering: keynote address.
Paper presented at the RE'95:
Second IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, York (UK).
Bustard, DW, Holcombe, M and Sommerville, I, 2004, BoF: New Directions in UK
Software Engineering Research, Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on
Software Engineering (ICSE’04), IEEE
Bustard, DW, He, Z and Wilkie, FG, Linking Soft Systems and Use-case Modelling
through Scenarios, Interacting with Computers, Vol. 13, No.1, Elsevier, October
2000, pp. 97-110
Bustard D.W., Kawalek, P and Norris, M.T. (Eds.), 2000, Systems Modelling for
Business Process Improvement, Artech House, May 2000.
Bustard, DW, He, Z and Wilkie, FG, 1999, Soft Systems and Use-Case Modelling:
Mutually Supportive or Mutually Exclusive?, Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii
International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-32), Maui, Hawai (CDROM),
IEEE, January 1999, 8 pages.
Bustard, D. W., Dobbin, T. J., and Carey, B. N., 1996, “Integrating Soft Systems and
Object-Oriented Analysis”, IEEE International Conference on Requirements
Engineering, Colorado Springs, Colorado, April, 1996, pp. 52-59 Bustard, D. W. and Lundy, P.J., 1996, Integrating Process Modelling and Soft
Systems Analysis, Methods Integration Workshop, Leeds, March 1996
Bustard, D, 1994, Progress towards RACE: A ‘Soft-centred’ Requirements Definition
Method, Software Quality and Productivity, 1994, pages 29-36.
Buzan, T., Buzan, B. (2000), The Mind Map Book, Millennium edition, London: BBC
Worldwide
Cantor, M., 1998, Object-Oriented Project Management with UML, John Wiley &
Sons, Canada, 1998.
Cao, G, Clarke,S and Lehaney, B, 2004, The Need for a Systemic approach to
Change Management - A Case Study, Systemic Practice and Action Research, Vol
17, No.2, April 2004
Carroll, J M and Swatman, P A (1999) Opportunism in the Requirements Engineering
process School of Management Information Systems Working Paper 1999/02,
Deakin University, Australia
Carroll, J., (Ed.), 1995, Scenario-Based Design: Envisioning Work and Technology in
System Development, New York: John Wiley, 1995.
CCTA, 1993, Applying Soft Systems Methodology to an SSADM Feasibility Study.
HMSO, Crown Copyright, 1993. London
Champion, D and Stowell, FA, 2003, Validating Action Research Field Studies:
PEArL, Systemic Practice and Action Research, Vol 16. No.1, February 2003
Champion, D and Stowell, F, 2002, Navigating the Gap Between Action and a
Serving Information System, Information Systems Frontiers 4:3, 273-284, 2002,
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Champion, D and Stowell, FA, 2001, PEArL: a systems approach to demonstrating
authenticity in information systems design, Journal of Information Technology,
Routledge, Vol 16, Number 1, March, 1, 2001, pp 3-12
Checkland, P, 2000, The Emergent Properties of SSM in Use: A Symposium by
Reflective Practitioners, Systemic Practice and Action Research, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2000
Checkland, P interviewed by Mark Winter, Human Resource Development
International, 3(3), pp. 411-417
Checkland, PB and Scholes, J, 1999, Soft Systems Methodology in Action with a
Thirty Years Retrospective on SSM, John Wiley, Chichester
Checkland, P.,1997, unpublished presentation given at Systems for sustainability:
People, Organisations and Environments, 5th International Conference of the United
Kingdom Systems Society, Milton Keynes: The Open University, July 1997.
Checkland, PB and Holwell, S, 1998, Information, Systems and Information Systems:
Making Sense of the field, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester Checkland, P and Holwell, S, 1998, Action Research: its nature and validity,
Systemic Practice and Action Research, 11(1), pp. 9-21
Checkland, PB.,1981, Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, John Wiley, Chichester
Checkland, PB and Holwell, S, 1993, Information management and organizational
processes: an approach through soft systems methodology, Journal of Information
Systems, 3, 1-15
Checkland, PB., and Scholes, J, 1990, Soft Systems Methodology in Action, John
Wiley, Chichester
Checkland, P., 1991 "From framework through experience to learning: the essential
nature of action research," in Information Systems Research: Contemporary
Approaches and Emergent Traditions, H-E. Nissen, H.K. Klein, R.A. Hirschheim
(eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991, pp. 397-403.
Checkland PB, 1988, Information systems and systems thinking: time to unite?
International Journal of Information Management, 8: 239-248
Checkland, P and Casar, A, 1986. Vickers’ Concept of an Appreciative System: A
Systemic Account. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis 13:3-17
Chesney, T and Fletcher, H, 2000, Process Differentiation and Information Systems
Development, Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System
Sciences.
Coad, P and Yourdon, E, 1990, Object Oriented Analysis, Yourdon, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ.
Cockburn, A. ,2002, Agile Software Development. Addison Wesley Professional
Cockburn A., 2001,Writing Effective use cases. Addison Wesley, 2001.
Cockburn, A,1999, Characterizing People as Non-Linear, First-Order Components in
Software Development(Technical Report to be submitted for external publication)
Cockburn A., 1997, Structuring use cases with Goals. Journal of Object Oriented
Programming. Sep-Oct and Nov – Dec. SIGS Publications, 1997.
Computer Weekly, June 8, 2004
www.computerweekly.com/Article131375.htm
Cooke, J, 1996, Methods Integration: Time for Reflection (and Reorientation?),
Proceedings of the Methods Integration Workshop, Leeds, 25-26 March, Bryant, A &
Semmens (Eds), Electronic Workshops in Computing, Springer
Cropley, D, Yue, Y and Cook, S, 2003 On identifying a Methodology for Land C2
Architecture Development, Land Warfare Conference, Adelaide, October 2003. Cybulski, J. L., Nguyen, L., Thanasankit, T., and Lichtenstein, S., 2003,
Understanding problem solving in requirements engineering, Burwood,
Australia: School of Information Systems, Deakin University.
Damian, D, Zowghi, D, Vaidyanathasamy, L and Pal, Y, 2004, An Industrial Case
study of immediate benefits of Requirements Engineering Process improvement at
the Australian Centre for Unisys Software, Empirical Software Engineering, 9, 45-75,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands
Davis, GB, 1982, Strategies for Information Requirements Determination, IBM
Systems Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 4-30
Dawson, C, 2000, The Essence of Computing Projects: a student’s guide, Prentice
Hall
De Bono, E., 2000, Six Thinking Hats, Penguin.
DFes, 2003, The Future of Higher Education, White paper.
http://www.dfes.gov.uk/hegateway/strategy/hestrategy/pdfs/DfESHigherEducation.
pdf
Dick, B. and Swepson, P., Appropriate validity and its attainment within action
research:an illustration using soft systems methodology [online].1994.
Available at http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/sofsys2.html
Dobbin, TJ and Bustard, DW, 1994, Combining Soft Ssytems Methodology and
Object-Oriented Analysis: The search for a Good fit, Proceedings of the 2nd
Information Systems Methodologies Conference, Edinburgh, August 1994
Dobson, J and Strens, R,1994, Organisational requirements definition for information
technology systems, in Proceedings of the first International Conference on
Requirements Engineering, 18-22 April, Colorado Springs, Colorado, IEEE Computer
Society Press, Los Alamitos CA, 158 -65
Doyle, K.G., Wood, J.R.G. and Wood-Harper, A.T. Soft systems and systems
engineering: on the use of conceptual models in information system development. J
of Info Systems, 1993 3, 187-198
Doyle, K and Wood, RJ, 1991, Systems thinking, systems practice, dangerous
liaisons. Systemist, Vol. 13, No.1, pp. 28-30
Dittrich, Y, Floyd, C and Klischewski, R(Eds): Social Thinking – Software Practice.
MIT Press, 2002
Downs, D and Lunn, K., 2002, Analysis and Design for Process Support Systems
using Goal-oriented Business Process Modelling, Workshop on Goal-Oriented
Business Process Modeling (GBPM'02), Toronto (Canada), May 27- 28, 2002,
D’Souza, DF and Wills, AC, 1998, Objects, Components and Frameworks with UML:
The Catalysis Approach, Addison Wesley, Harlow
Drummond, H., 1996, The Politics of Risk: Trials and Tribulations of the Taurus
Project. Journal of Information Technology 11: 347-357. Eliens, A, 2000, Principles of Object-Oriented Software Development, 2nd Ed.,
Addison-Wesley
Ewusi-Mensah, K, 1997, Critical issues in abandoned information systems
development projects. Communications of the ACM, 40(7): 74-80.
Ewusi-Mensah, K., 2003, Software Development Project Failures: Anatomy of
abandoned projects, MIT Press
Ewusi-Mensah, K, 1997, Critical issues in abandoned information systems
development projects. Communications of the ACM, 40(7): 74-80
Ferrari, FM, Fares, CB and Martinelli, DP, 2002, The Systemic Approach of SSM:
The Case of a Brazilian Company, Systemic Practice and Action Research, Vol 15,
No. 1, February 2002
Flick U., 1999, An Introduction to Qualitative Research, SAGE Publications, London,
1999.
Flood, R.L.,(2000). A Brief Review of Peter B. Checkland’s Contribution to Systemic
Thinking. Syst. Pract. 13(6), 723-731
Flood, RL, 1999, Knowing of the Unknowable, Systemic practice and Action
Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1999
Flood, R and Romm, N, 1997, From Metatheory to Multimethodology,
Multimethodology:The Theory and Practice of combining management sciences
Methodologies. Eds Mingers, J and Gill, A, Wiley & Sons
Flood, RL and Jackson, MC, 1991, Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems
Intervention.
Floyd, C, 1987, Outline of a paradigm change in software engineering. 191-210 in G
Bjerknes et al. (Eds.) Computers and Democracy. Avebury:Aldershot.
Flynn, D., 1998, Information Systems Requirements: Determination and Analysis,
(2nd Ed.), Maidenhead:McGraw-Hill, 1998.
Fowler, M., 2003, UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modelling
Language (3rd Ed.), Addison-Wesley Professional
Fowler, M. and Scott, K., 2000, UML Distilled(2nd Ed.). Reading, M.A.: Addison-
Wesley. 2000
Fowler, M. and Scott, K, 2000, UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object
Modelling Language (2nd Ed.), Addison-Wesley Professional.
Fuenmayor, R, 2000, A Brief Crack of Light? Systemic Practice and Action Research
(13) 6 Galliers, R D, 1997. Against Obliteration – Reducing risk in business process
change. In steps to the Future – Fresh thinking on the management of IT-based
organisational transformation, edited by Sauer, C., Yetton, P. w. AND Associates, a.
San Francisco:Jossey-Bass Publisher.
Galliers, RD, 1992, Soft Sy

Depositing User: Sara Taylor
Date Deposited: 20 Dec 2007
Last Modified: 26 Aug 2015 02:18
URI: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/352

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

Repository Staff Only: item control page

View Item View Item

University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©