Bhasker, R. (1975) A Realist Theory of Social Science (Leeds, Leeds Books; 2nd edn 1979, Brighton,
Bhasker, R. (1979) The Possibility of Naturalism (Brighton, Harvester; 2nd edn 1989, Hemel
Hempstead, Harvester Wheatsheaf ).
Black, N. (1996) Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of health care.
British Medical Journal, 312,11 May, pp. 1215–1218.Brown, P. (1995) The role of the evaluator in comprehensive community initiatives. In: New
Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives, Vol. 1: Concepts, Methods, and Contexts [http://
Campbell, D.T. (1969) Reforms as experiments. American Psychologist, 24, pp. 409–429.
Campbell, D.T. (1982) Experiments as arguments. In: House, E.R., Mathison, S., Pearsol, J.A. &
Preskill, H. (eds) Evaluation Studies Review Annual (Beverly Hills, CA, Sage), Vol. 7,
Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1963) Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evaluations in Social
Research (Rand McNally, Chicago).
Campbell, M., Fitzpatrick, R., Haines, A., Kinmonth, A.L., Sandercock, P., Spiegelhalter, D. &
Tyrer, P. (2000) Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve
health. British Medical Journal, 321(7262), p. 694.
Chen, H.T. & Rossi, P.H. (1983) Evaluating with sense: the theory-driven approach. Evaluation
Review, 7, pp. 283–302.
Connell, J.P. & Kubisch, A.C. (1998) Applying a theory of change approach to the evaluation of
comprehensive community initiatives: progress, prospects, and problems. In: Fulbright-
Anderson, K., Kubisch, A.C. & J.P. Connell (eds) New Approaches to Evaluating Community
Initiatives, Vol. 2: Theory, Measurement, and Analysis (Washington, DC, Aspen Institute).
Cotterill, L. (2000) Preliminary Report: Evaluation Strategy and Action Plan, Position Statement
(Plymouth, University of Plymouth).
Cotterill, L. & Cole, M.S. (2002) The Learning Communities Evaluation, Plymouth Health Action
Zone: Strategic Level Over-View, Unpublished Report (University of Plymouth).
Davies, H.T.O., Nutley, S.M. & Smith, P.C. (eds) (2000) What Works? Evidence-Based Policy and
Practice in Public Services (London, Policy Press).
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (2000) Collaboration and Co-ordination
in Area-based Regeneration Initiatives, Regeneration Research Summary No. 35 (London,
RegionalCo-ordination Unit, DETR) [http://www.regeneration.detr.gov.uk].
Department of Health (1997a) The New NHS: Modern, Dependable, Cm. 3807 (London, Stationery
Department of Health (1997b) Health Action Zones—Invitation to Bid, EL(97)65, 30 October
(Leeds, Department of Health).
Department of Health (1998a) A First Class Service (London, Department of Health).
Department of Health (1998b) Modernising Social Services, Cm 4169 (London, Stationery Office).
Department of Health (1998c) Modernising Mental Health Services, Safe, Sound and Supportive
(London, Department of Health).
Department of Health (1999a) Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation, Cm 4386 (London, Stationery
Department of Health (1999b) National Service Framework for Mental Health (London, Department
Department of Health (1999c) Modernising Government, Cm 4310 (London, Stationery Office).
Department of Health (2000) The NHS Plan: A Plan for Investment. A Plan for Reform, Cm 4818-1
(London, Stationery Office).
Department of Health (2001) Tackling Health Inequalities, Consultation on a Plan for Delivery
(London, Department of Health).
Guba, E.G. (1972) The failure of educational evaluation. In: Weiss, C.H. (ed.) Evaluating Action
Programs (Allyn & Bacon, Boston), pp. 250–266.
Guba, E.G. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1989) Fourth Generation Evaluation (Sage Publications, Newbury
Harre, R. (1972) The Philosophies of Science (Oxford University Press, Oxford).
Heathfield, H., Pitty, D. & Hanka, R. (1998) Evaluating information technology in health care:
barriers and challenges. British Medical Journal, 316, pp. 1959–1961 (27 June).
Higgins, J. (1998) HAZs warning. Health Service Journal, 16 April, pp. 24–25.Judge, K. & Bauld, L. (2001) Strong theory, flexible methods: evaluating complex communitybased
initiatives. Critical Public Health, 11(1), pp. 19–38.
Judge, K., Bauld, L., Barnes, M., Benzeval, M., Killoran, A., Robinson, R. & Wigglesworth, R.
(1999) Health Action Zones: Learning to Make a Difference, PSSRU Discussion Paper 1546
(Canterbury, University of Kent: Canterbury, Kent).
Mant, D. (1999) Can randomised trials inform clinical decisions about individual patients? The
Lancet, 353, pp. 743–746 (27 February).
MedicalResearch Council(2000) A Framework for Development and Evaluation of RCTs for Complex
Interventions to Improve Healt, Discussion document (London, MRC).
NHS Executive (1998) The New NHS Modern and Dependable: A National Framework for Assessing
Performance (Leeds, NHSE).
Office for Public Management (2000) The Evaluation of Area-based Initiatives (London, Office for
Patton, M.Q. (1975) Alternative Evaluation Research Paradigm (Grand Fork, University of North
Patton, M.Q. (1986) Utilization-Focused Evaluation, 2nd edn (Newbury Park, CA, Sage
Pawson, R. & Tilley, N. (1994) What works in evaluation research? British Journal of Criminology,
34, pp. 391–206.
Pawson, R. & Tilley, N. (1997) Realistic Evaluation (London, Sage Publications).
Plymouth Health Action Zone (1999) Plymouth Health Action Zone Implementation Plan January
1999–April 2000 (Plymouth, Plymouth Health Action Zone).
Rossi, P.H., Freeman, H.E. & Lipsey, M.W. (1999) Evaluation A Systematic Approach, 6th edn
(London, Sage Publications).
Sayer, A. (2000) Realism and Social Science (London, Sage Publications).
Shadish Jr., W.R., Cook, T.D. & Leviton, L.C. (1991) Foundations of Program Evaluation:
Theories of Practice (London, Sage).
Sheldon, B. & Macdonald, G. (1999) Research and Practice in Social Care: Mind the Gap (Exeter,
Centre for Evidence-Based SocialServices, University of Exeter).
Smith, G.R. (1999) Area-based Initiatives: The Rationale for and Options for Area Targeting (London,
Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics).
Stake, R.E. (ed.) (1975) Evaluating the Arts in Education: A Responsive Approach (Coloumbus, OH,
Weiss, C.H. (1970) The politicization of evaluation research. Journal of Social Issues, 26, pp. 57–68.
Weiss, C.H. (1972) Evaluation Research (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall).
Weiss, C.H. (1983) The stakeholder approach to evaluation: origins and promise. In: Bryk, A. (ed.)
Stakeholder-Based Evaluation (San Francisco, Jossey-Bass), pp. 3–14.
Weiss, C.H. (1995) Nothing as practical as good theory: exploring theory-based evaluation for comprehensive
community initiatives for children and families. In: Connell, J.P., Kubisch, A.C.,
Schorr, L.B. & Weiss, C.H. (eds) New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives: Concepts,
Methods and Contexts (Washington, DC, Aspen Institute).
Wilson, E. (1979) The Mental as Physical (London, Routledge).
World Health Organisation Europe (1998) Health Promotion Evaluation: Recommendations to Policy-
Makers, Report to the WHO European Working Group on Health Promotion Evaluation (Copenhagen, WHO).