Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Marketing of a destination: Jordan as a case study

Alhroot, Abdel-Hafiz Hussein Jaddou (2007) Marketing of a destination: Jordan as a case study. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.


Download (2MB) | Preview


This study investigates the internal and external environmental factors that affect
destination marketing in Jordan and the use of the destination marketing concept by
tourism companies in Jordan. Furthermore, special emphasis is placed on investigating
and identifying the existing relationship between the internal and external factors in
destination marketing by pinpointing the factors being used by tourism companies and
those factors that contribute to the attraction of tourists to Jordan. The empirical
research to support the study uses survey methods to develop and test the critical
factors of a destination marketing success model that can be used to market and
promote Jordan, regionally and globally, as a preferred tourism destination area.
A number of hypotheses were formulated to realise the objectives of the study. In the
formulation of the research hypotheses, the researcher was guided by a deductive
method regarding the groups of tourist destination attitudes and practices of marketing
with consistency of questionnaire responses in comparison with available literature on
the subject. Eight hypotheses covered the following aspects: tourists’ satisfaction,
quality, product, accessibility, people, price, promotion and physical evidence. The
results were quantitatively analysed by using SPSS. Review of previous research on
critical factors of success, tactical management, destination tactical management and
destination competitiveness models was undertaken in an endeavour to find a
framework for the development of critical factors of the destination marketing success
model that can be used for the identification and integration of critical factors of
The findings indicate that respondents rated all the factors of service quality listed as
critical. Most of the respondents felt that, in order to please the global tourists, the
experience must be safe, secure, comfortable and relaxing. Also, the quality of
capability, accommodation, access to natural areas, tour guides, tourist information,
transportation, financial and communication institutions were factors regarded as
contributors to tourist satisfaction. It was also revealed that the most critical factors of
product of destination marketing development were improving the tourism products,
identifying and exploring new opportunities and upgrading visitor services and

The proposed destination marketing model was developed and tested in the Jordan
context and proved to be operational. A number of recommendations were made in
terms of safety and security management, destination product marketing development,
accessibility systems, people development and dependable management. This study
contributes to the field of tourism through testing a destination marketing success
model that can be applied to global destinations.

▼ Jump to Download Statistics
Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: © Abdel-Hafiz Hussein Jaddou Alhroot 2007
Uncontrolled Keywords: Jordan tourism destination marketing
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure
Schools: The Business School

Aaker, D.A. and Day, G.S.(1986). Marketing Research, 3rd ed., New York: J. Wiley
and Sons.
Abell, D.F, (1978), Strategic Windows, Journal of Marketing. Vol.42.
Abu Rahamah, M., AlQuasim, A. and Hawgal, I.(2001). Principles of Tourism, 1st Ed,
Dar Al Barkeh Publishing & Distributing, Amman, Jordan.
Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies, Workshop on Ethnographic. Research in
Information Systems, March 9, 8-11.
Ackoff, R.I.(1987).Mission Statements, Planning Review. Vol.15. No. 4, pp. 30-32.
Adcock, D. Bradfield, R., Hallborg, A and Ross, C. (1993). Principles and Practice of
Marketing. 2nd Ed. Princes Hall. London, pp.3-10.
Agarwal, L. (1992), Concept to Tourism; Investment in Tourism and Public Sector, Investment
in Infrastructure. The Dand Market Share, Journal of Destination in Tourism Market. Vol.2,
Agues, A.D, Gonclaves, G.H, (1998), The Concept of Life Cycle: An Application to
the Tourism Product, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 31 No.1, pp.22-32.
Ahmed, P.K. and Rafiq, M. (1992).The Marketing Mix Reconsidered, Proceedings of
the Annual Conference of the Marketing Education Group, Sanford, pp. 439-451.
Ahmed, P.K. and Rafiq, M. (1993).The Scope of Internal Marketing: Defining the
Boundary Between Marketing and Human Resource Management, Journal Marketing
Management. Vol. 9. No. 3, pp. 219-232.
Ahmed, P.K. and Rafiq, M.(2000).Advances in Internal Marketing: Definition,
Synthesis and Extension, Journal Service Marketing. Vol. 14 No.6, pp. 449-462.
Ahmed, P.K. and Rafiq, M.(2003).Internal Marketing and the Mediating Role of
Organisational Competencies, European Journal Marketing Vol. 37. No. 9, pp. 1177-
Aijo, T.S. (1996).The Theoretical and Philosophical Underpinnings of Relationship
Marketing, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 30. No2, pp. 8-18.
Akroush, M., N. (2005). The Service Marketing Mix Paradigm: Is It Still Appropriate
for Today’s Service Businesses? A Research Paper, Amman-Jordan.
Alan, S.(2003). Local Government Use of State Accommodation Taxes; Destination
Branding, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. Vol.10. No 5/6. pp 132-143.
Alan, S. & Wong, R. (2004). Economic Impact of SARS: The Case of Honk Kong.
The University of Hong Kong, China. MIT Press, Journal Asian Economic. pp. 62-
Allan, G. (2003). A Critique of Using Grounded Theory as a Research Method,
Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Vol. 2. No. 1.
Allison, B., Sullivan, T., Owen, A., Rice, J., Rothwell, A., & Sanders, C.(1996).
Research Skills for Students. London: Kogan Page.
Althiyaman, A. & Robertson, R.W.(1995b). Strategic Planning in Large Tourism
Firms: An Empirical Analysis. Tourism Management. Vol. 16. No.3, pp. 199-205.
Amelio, G. & Sinn, W. (1996). Profit from Experience: The National Semi-
Conductor Story from Transformation Management. New York: Van Nostrand
American Marketing Association (AMA, 1985). AMA’s Summer Educator’s Conference in
August /2004. Available on:
Andersen, P.B and Molmqvist, B. (eds). (1995). The Semiotics of the Workplace
Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
Anderson, E.W. & Sullivan, N.(1993).The Antecedents and Consequences of
Customer Satisfaction for Firms. Marketing Science, Vol. 12, pp. 125-143.
Andrews, R. (1987). The Concept of Corporate Strategy. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
Anonymous. (1989). Product Development and Promotions. The Economist.
Anonymous. (2000). Distribution Dilemmas, E-Commerce survey, The Economist. pp. 8-23.
Arab Conference on Information Technology, (ACIT, 2000). Zarka Private University-
Jordan. Journal about Jordan, Vol. 1, No1, pp3-5.
Archdale, G.(1991a). The Promotion of the Destination and the Tourist Products Through
Information and the Role of the Public Offices for the Support of the Necessary
Infrastructure, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Networking and the
Public Tourist Organization, Assist-Perugia, Italy, 18-20 November, pp. 162-170.
Archdale, G.(1992b). A New Direction for Effective Destination Marketing and Quality
Customer Service-Keynote Address, in Yee, J., (Eds.), Proceedings from PATA Destination
Database Conference. Singapore, December 9-10, PATA Intelligence Centre, San Francisco,
pp. 13-18.
Archdale, G.(1993). Computer Reservation Systems and Public Tourism Offices, Tourism
Management, Vol. 14. No.1, pp. 3-14.
Archdale, G., Stanton, R., Johns, G.(1992). Destination Databases: Issues and Priorities,
Pacific Asia Travel Association, San Francisco.
Arrolter, D. (1998). The Electronic Tourism Market Place New Challenges. The 5th
International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies in
Tourism, Istanbul, Turkey, 21-23 January 1998.
Baerenholdt, J.O & Framke, W. (2000). Destination Construction. Travel
&Destination. Proceedings of a Conference Held at Roskilde University 17. 22.
Geography Roskilde University Working Paper 152/Publication from the Tourism
Research Centre of Denmark, 15-28.
Baerenholdt, J.O.(2001).Ohm Production of Destination for Truism. Paper, Submitted to
Conference Held at Roskilde University, Journal of Tourism Research.
Baily, M.. (1992). Productivity Dynamics in Manufacturing Plants, Brookings Papers
on Economic Activity, pp. 187 - 249.
Balogh, S. and Briuberg, D. (1997). Affective Images of Tourism Destinations. Journal of
Travel Research, Vol.35. No. 4, pp. 11-15.
Baker, J.A. (1992). Discovering the Future: The Power of Vision. Winter park, FL: Infinity.
Baron, S., Harris, K and Davies, B.J.(1996). Oral Participation in Retail Service
Delivery: A Comparison of the Roles of Contact Personnel and Customers, European
Journal of Marketing, Vol.30. No.9, pp. 75-90.
Barrett, M. & Walshman, G.(2004). Making Contributions from Interpretive Case Studies,
Chapter 17 from Information Systems Research: relevant theory & informed practice,
Kaplan B, Truex, D, Wastell D, Wood-Harper T, DeGross J (eds), Kluwer Press.
Bartlett, C.A. & Ghoshal, S.(1995). Changing the Role of the Top Management Beyond
Structure to Processes. Harvard Business Review, Vol.73. No.1, pp. 86-96.
Baskerville,R.,and Myers,M.D.(2004). MIS Quarterly Special Issue on Action,
Research in Information Systems has now been published.
Beckman, T, Davidson, W.R, Talarzyk, W.W.(1973).The Nature of the Marketing
Firm. Cases, Ronald H 9th ed. pp 9-21.
Beetaon, S. (2000). It’s a Wrap! What Happens after the Film Crew Leaves? An
Examination of Community Responses to Film-Induced Tourism’ TTRA National
Conference-lights! Camera! Action, Burbank, CA. Vol.4. pp.83-9.
Beetaon, S. (2001).Cyclops and Sirens- Demarketing as a Proactive Response to Negative
Consequences of One-Eyed Competitive Marketing’, TTRA32nd Conference Proceedings,
2001: A Tourism Odyssey, Florida, pp.125-136.
Bendixen, M. & Cronson, D. (1996). Consumer perception of a perilous product international
tourism to South Africa. South African journal of Business Management, Vol. 27. No. 4, pp.
Benfield, R.(2000). Good Things Come to Those Who Wait-Market Research and Timed
Entry at Sissinghurst Castle Garden, Kent’ TTRA Annual Conference Proceedings-Lights,
Camera, Action, California, June, pp.226-234.
Benfield, R. (2001). Turning Back the Hordes. Demarketing Research as a Means of
Managing Mass Tourism, R. N. Moisey, Norma, P. Nickerson, Kathleen L. Andereck
(editors). TTRA32nd Conference Proceedings, 2001: A Tourism Odyssey, Florida. pp.201-
Berger, P.& Luckmann,T.(1967). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in
the Sociology of Knowledge, Doubleday, New York.
Berry, L.L. (1980). Service is Different, Business Horizons, May-June, 24-9.
Berry, L.L. (1987). Big Ideas in Services Marketing, Journal of Service Marketing,
fall, pp. 5-9.
Berry, L.L.(1995). Relationship Marketing, in Payne, A., M. Christopher, M., Clark
and H. Peck (eds) Butterworth-Heinemann, pp.45-57.
Berry, L.L, Lefkowith, E.E and Clark, T.(1980). In Services: What’s in a Name?
Harvard Business Review, Sept.-Oct., 28-30.
Bessom, R.D.(1973). Unique Aspects of Marketing Services, Arizona Business, Vol. 20, 9-
Bijker,W., Hughes, P., &Pinch, T.(1987).The Social Construction of Technology
Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, MIT Press.
Bitner,M.J., Booms,B.H and Tetreault, M.S.(1990). The Service Encounter:
Diagnosing Favourable and Unfavourable Incidents, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 43,
pp. 71-84.
Bitner,M.J., Booms,B.H and Mohr,L.A.(1994).Critical Service Encounters: The
Employee’s View, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, pp, 95-106.
Bitner, M. J. (1995). Building Service Relationships: It’s All About Promises,
Journal of the academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 246-251.
Blazer, S. and Rovelstad, J. (1983). Research and Strategic Marketing in Tourism: A Status
Report. Journal of Travel Research. pp, 2-7.
Bleicher, J. (1980). Contemporary Hermeneutics: Hermeneutics as Method,
Philosophy and Critique, London and Boston: Rutledge & Keg A Paul.pp39-51.
Bloemer, J., de. Ruyter, K and Wetzels,M.(1999). Linking Perceived Service Quality
and Service Loyalty: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective, European Journal of
Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 11/12, pp, 1082-1106.
Bloemer, J.and de. Ruyter, K. (1998). On the Relationship between Store Image,
Store Satisfaction and Store Loyalty, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32. No5/6,
pp, 499-513.
Blomstrom, R.L.(1983). Strategic Marketing Planning in the Hospitality Industry, East
Lancing, MI: The Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association.
Boland, R. (1985). Phenomenology: A Preferred Approach to Research in
Information Systems, Research Methods in Information Systems, pp.193-201.
Booms, B.H.and Bitner, M. J.(1981). Marketing Strategies and Organization Structures for
Service Firms. In Marketing of Services: 1981 Special Educators Conference Proceedings,
James Donnelly and William George, Eds, Chicago, American Marketing Associations, p.46.
Bordas, G. (1994). Competitiveness of Tourist Destinations in Long Distance Markets. The
Tourism Review, Vol. 4. No. 3, pp. 3-9.
Borden,N.H.(1964). The Concept of the Marketing Mix, Journal of Advertising
Research,Vol.4, June, pp2-7.
Borkowski, N.M. (1994). Demarketing of Health Services. Journal of Health Care
Marketing, Vol.14. No. 4, p.12.
Bosetti, V., Cassinelli, M., and Lanza, A. (2006). Benchmarketing in Tourism Destination,
Keeping in Mind the Sustainable Paradigm. Natural Resources Management. Social Science
Research. pp, 1-19.
Bowdin,G.,Wiley,Y.,and Rogers,T. (2003). Events Management, Elsevier,
Butterworth- Heinemann, UK. pp, 39-57.
Bowen, D.E. and Lawler, L.L. (1992). Empowerment: Why, What, How and When,
Sloan Management Review, pp, 31-39.
Braakhuis AJ, Meredith K, Cox GX, Hopkins WG, Burke LM.(2003). Variability in
Estimation of Self-Reported Dietary Intake Data from Elite Athletes Resulting from
Coding by Different Sports Dietitians. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and
Exercise. Metabolism, Vol.107, pp, 1248-1257.
Briggs, S. (2001). Successful Tourism Marketing. 2nd Ed. Logan Page LTD.
Bring J., Zaleski, J., Gediman, P and Abbott, C. (1999). Leading by Design: The
IKEA Story, Publishers Weekly 19 July, 174.
British Tourism Authority.(2001). Movie Map. Available on:, October 2001.
Brohmann, J. (1996). New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development. Annals of
Tourism Research. Vol. 23, No.1, pp, 48-70.
Brookfield, H. (1988). Sustainable Development and the Environment. Journal of
Development Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp, 126-135.
Brown, J.R.(1987). The Structure of Gasoline Retailing, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 3,
No 2, p 63.
Brown, P., & Dickey, C. (1992). Critical Reflection in Groups with Abused Women.
Affiliate, Vol. 7. No. 3, pp.57-71.
Brush, T.H. & Artz, K.W. (1999). Towards a Contingent Resource-Based Theory: The
Impact of Information Asymmetry on the Value of Capabilities in Veterinary Medicine.
Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 20, pp, 223-250.
Bryden, J. (1973). Tourism and Development: A Case Study of the Commonwealth
Caribbean. Cambridge University Press.
Buckley, R. (1996). Sustainable Tourism: Technical Issues and Information Needs. Annual of
Tourism Research, Vol. 23. No. 4, pp, 925-966.
Buechy, J. (1998). CRS/GDS in the Virtual Marketplace: Can they keep their place?,
The 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies in
Tourism, Istanbul, Turkey, 21-23 January.
Bueno, A. (1999). Competitiveness in the Tourist Industry and the Role of the Spanish Public
Administration. Tourism and Hospitality, Vol. 47. No. 4, pp, 316-331.
Buhalis, D. (1994). Information and Telecommunication Technologies as a Strategic
Tool for Small and Medium Tourism Enterprises in the Contemporary Business
Environment. In Seaton, A., Wood, R., Dieke, P., and Jenkins, C., Tourism – the
State of the Art, The Strathclyde Symposium, pp.254-275.
Buhalis, D. (1995b). The Impact of Information Telecommunication Technologies on
Tourism Channels: implications for the Small and Medium Sized Tourism
Enterprises. PhD. Thesis, University of Surry, Guildford, England. pp17-34.
Buhalis, D. (1996). Information and Telecommunication Technologies as a Strategic Tool for
Tourism Enhancement at Destination Regions, in Klein, S., Schmid, B., Tjoa, A., Werthner,
H., (Editors), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, Conference
Proceedings ENTER’96, Innsbruck 17-19 January, Wien: Springer-Verlag, 131-142.
Buhalis,D.(2000). Marketing the Competitive Destination of the Future. Tourism
Management, Vol. 21, pp, 97-116.
Burke, J. and Lindblom, L.(1989). Strategies for Evaluating Direct Response Tourism
Marketing, Journal of Travel Research, Vol.28, No.2, pp.33-37.
Burke, J. and Gitelson, R.(1990). Conversion Studies: Assumption, Applications, Accuracy
and Abuse. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 28. No.3, pp. 46-51.
Burns, P. (1998). Paradoxes in Planning: Tourism Elitism or Brutalism? Tourism
Management Journal, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp, 555-566.
Burns, P.M. and Holden, A. (1995). Tourism: A New Perspective. London: Prentice Hall.
Burrell,G.,& Morgan, G. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organizational
Analysis. London: Heinemann.
Business Tourism Partnership, UK, (BTP, 2003), Annual Report.
Butkart, A.J. &Medlik, S. (1974). Tourism: Past, Present and Future. London: Heinemann,
Butler. R.W. (1980). The Concept of a Tourist Cycle of Evolution: Implications for
Management of Resources. Canadian geographer, Vol. 24, No 1, pp. 5-12
Butler,R.W.(1991).Tourism,Environment and Sustainable
Development.Environmental Conservation, Vol. 18. No. 3, pp, 201- 209.
California Tourism.(2001).California Movie Map, Available at: Movies, December 2001.
Campbell, D., Stonehouse, G., & Houston, B. (2003). Business Strategy: An Introduction. 2nd
ed. Oxford: Butterworth. pp, 63-78.
Carmelo, L., Hernandez, J., and Gonzalez, N. (2006). Endogenous Lifecycle and
Optimal Growth in Tourism. Modulo D-3.16, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, pp.1-21.
Carmen, J. M., and Langeard, E.(1980). Growth Strategies of Service Firms, Strategic
Management Journal, Vol.2, pp.7-22.
Carter, M. (1999). Commercial Taste for an Ethical Brew, Financial Times, 22 October, 17.
Central Bank of Jordan, Annual Reports, 2000-2006.
Chacko, H.E.(1997). Positioning a Tourism Destination to Gain Competitive Edge, Asia
Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol.1 No 2, pp. 69-75.
Chan,Tung-Zong and Chen, Su-Jane.(1998). Market Orientation, Service Quality and
Business Profitability: A Conceptual Model and Empirical Evidence, Journal of
Services Marketing, Vol.12.No4, pp.246-264.
Chartered Institute of Marketing. (CIM, 1991). Public Dissemination- Research
Policy Review paper published in the International Journal of Human Factors in
Manufacturing, Vol.113, 257-279.
Chen, H-M and Sheldon, P. (1997). Destination Information Systems: Design Issues
and Directions. Journal of Management Information Systems. Vol.14.No.2. pp.151-
Chetty, S.(1996).The Case Study Method for Research in Small and Medium

Depositing User: Briony Heyhoe
Date Deposited: 20 Dec 2007
Last Modified: 28 Jul 2010 18:20


Downloads per month over past year

Repository Staff Only: item control page

View Item View Item

University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©