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The Identification and Synthesis of Lead Apatite Minerals Formed in Lead Water Pipes

Hopwood, Jeremy D., Derrick, Glyn R., Brown, David .R., Newman, Christopher D, Haley, John, Kershaw, Richard and Collinge, Mike (2016) The Identification and Synthesis of Lead Apatite Minerals Formed in Lead Water Pipes. Journal of Chemistry, 2016 (907406). pp. 1-11. ISSN 2090-906

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Abstract

Phosphate is added to drinking water in the UK to minimise the release of lead from lead water pipes. The phosphate encourages the formation of insoluble lead apatites on the walls of the pipe. Hydroxylpyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3OH is the lead apatite that is most often used to model lead levels in tap water; however, its presence has not been confirmed. Our aims were to identify the lead pipe apatite and synthesise it. The synthetic mineral would then be used in future solubility studies to produce better predictions of lead levels in tap water. XRD and FTIR were used to characterise the minerals on a range of lead pipes. Pyromorphite and hydroxylpyromorphite were absent and instead a range of mixed calcium lead apatites were present. For every five lead ions in the general formula Pb5(PO4)3X between one and two ions were replaced with calcium and there was evidence of substitution of by either or . Calcium lead apatites with similar unit cell dimensions to those found on lead water pipes were then synthesised. The calcium : lead ratio in these reaction mixtures was in excess of 500 : 1 and the resulting crystals were shown by TEM to be nanosized rods and flakes. The synthetic apatites that most closely resembled the unit cell dimensions of the apatites on lead water pipes were shown to be Pb3.4Ca1.3(PO4)3Cl0.03OH0.97, Pb3.6Ca1.2(PO4)3Cl0.07OH0.93, and Pb3.6Ca1.2(PO4)3Cl0.27OH0.73.

Item Type: Article
Contributors:
ContributionNameEmailORCID
AuthorHopwood, Jeremy DJeremy.hopwood@hud.ac.ukhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-4199-3366
UNSPECIFIEDDerrick, Glyn RUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
UNSPECIFIEDBrown, David .R.d.r.brown@hud.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
UNSPECIFIEDNewman, Christopher Dc.d.newman@hud.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
UNSPECIFIEDHaley, JohnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
UNSPECIFIEDKershaw, RichardUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
UNSPECIFIEDCollinge, MikeUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lead in tap water pyromorphite hydroxylpyromorphite plumbosolvency Lead water pipes Crystal growth x-ray diffraction apatite
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Schools: School of Applied Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Jeremy Hopwood
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2016 08:06
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2016 14:35
URI: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/28087

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