Search:
Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Perceptual thresholds for the effects of room modes as a function of modal decay

Fazenda, Bruno M., Stephenson, Matthew and Goldberg, Andrew (2015) Perceptual thresholds for the effects of room modes as a function of modal decay. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137 (3). pp. 1088-1098. ISSN 0001-4966

[img] PDF - Published Version
Download (1MB)

Abstract

Room modes cause audible artefacts in listening environments. Modal control approaches have emerged in scientific literature over the years and, often, their performance is measured by criteria that may be perceptually unfounded. Previous research has shown modal decay as a key perceptual factor in detecting modal effects. In this work, perceptual thresholds for the effects of modes as a function of modal decay have been measured in the region between 32Hz and 250Hz. A test methodology has been developed to include modal interaction and temporal masking from musical events, which are important aspects in recreating an ecologically valid test regime. This method has been deployed in addition to artificial test stimuli traditionally used in psychometric studies, which provide unmasked, absolute thresholds. For artificial stimuli, thresholds decrease monotonically from 0.9 seconds at 32 Hz to 0.17 seconds at 200 Hz, with a knee at 63 Hz. For music stimuli, thresholds decrease monotonically from 0.51 seconds at 63 Hz to 0.12 seconds at 250 Hz. Perceptual thresholds are shown to be dependent on frequency and to a much lesser extent on level. Results presented here define absolute and practical thresholds, which are useful as perceptually relevant optimization targets for modal control methods.

▼ Jump to Download Statistics
Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright 2015 Acoustical Society of America. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the Acoustical Society of America.
Uncontrolled Keywords: psychoacoustics
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Schools: School of Computing and Engineering
School of Computing and Engineering > Music Technology and Production Research Group
References:

1. R. H. Bolt. “Note on Normal Frequency Statistics for Rectangular Rooms”. J. Acoust. Soc. of Am., 18(1):130–133, 1946.

2. M. M. Louden. “Dimension Ratios of Rectangular Rooms with Good Distribution of Eigentones”. Acustica, 24(5):101–104, 1971.

3. O. J. Bonello. “A New Criterion for the Distribution of Normal Room Modes”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 29(9):597–606, Sept. 1981.

4. R. Walker. “Optimum Dimension Ratios for Small Rooms”. Proceedings of the 100th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 4191, May 1996.

5. T. J. Cox, P. D’Antonio, and M. R. Avis. “Room Sizing and Optimization at Low Frequencies”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 52(6):640–651, Jun. 2004.

6. J. A. Pedersen. “Adjusting a Loudspeaker to its Acoustic Environment: The ABC System”. Proceedings of the 115th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 5880, Oct. 2003.

7. A. R Groh. “High-Fidelity Sound System Equalization by Analysis of Standing Waves”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 22(10):795–799, Dec. 1974.

8. R. F. Allison. “The Sound Field in Home Listening Rooms, II”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 24(1):14–19, 1976.

9. K. O Ballagh. “Optimum Loudspeaker Placement Near Reflecting Planes”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 31(12):931–935, Jun. 1983.

10. T. Welti and A. Devantier. “Low-Frequency Optimization Using Multiple Subwoofers”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 54(5):347, May 2006.

11. P. Antsalo, M. Karjalainen, A. M¨akivirta, and V. V¨alim¨aki. “Comparison of Modal Equaliser Design Methods”. Proceedings of the 114th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 5844, March 2003.

12. T.J. Cox and P. D’antonio. “Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers: Theory, Design and Application”. Taylor and Francis, London, 2nd edition, 2009, Chapter 6.

13. A. Celestinos and S. Nielsen. “Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 56(11):915–931, Nov. 2008.

14. B. M. Fazenda, M. Wankling, J. Hargreaves, L. Elmer, and J. Hirst. “Subjective Preference of Modal Control Methods in Listening Rooms”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 60(5):338–349, 2012.

15. A. Goldberg and A. M¨akivirta. “Performance comparison of optimized equalization techniques for in-situ loudspeaker measurements”. In Proc. of the Inst. of Acoust., volume 27(5):193–205, 2005.

16. R. Bucklein. “The Audibility of Frequency Response Irregularities”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 29(3):126–131, Mar. 1981.

17. F. E. Toole and S. E. Olive. “The Modification of Timbre by Resonances: Perception and Measurement”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 36(3):122–141, 1988.

18. S. E. Olive, P. L. Schuck, J. G. Ryan, S. L. Sally, and M. E. Bonneville. “The Detection Thresholds of Resonances at Low Frequencies”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 45(3): 116–127, Mar. 1997.

19. B Fazenda, M. R. Avis, and W. J. Davies. “Perception of Modal Distribution Metrics in Critical Listening Spaces-Dependence on Room Aspect Ratios”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 53(12):1128–1141, Dec. 2005.

20. M. Karjalainen, P. A.A Esquef, P. Antsalo, A. M¨akivirta, and V. V¨alim¨aki. “Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling of Resonant and Reverberant Systems”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 50(12):1012–1029, 2002.

21. A. M¨akivirta, P. Antsalo, M. Karjalainen, and V. V¨alim¨aki. “Modal Equalization of Loudspeaker-Room Responses at Low Frequencies”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 51(5):324–343, May 2003.

22. M. Karjalainen, E. Piiril¨a, A. J¨arvinen, J. Huopaniemi. “Comparison of Louspeaker Equalization Methods Based on DSP Techniques”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 47(1/2): 14–31, Feb. 1999.

23. J. N. Mourjopoulos M. Karjalainen, T. Paatero and P. D. Hatziantoniou. “About Room Response Equalization and Dereverberation”. In IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New York, Oct. 2005, pp. 183–186. DOI: 10.1109/ASPAA.2005.1540200

24. M. R. Avis. “IIR Bi-Quad Controllers for Low Frequency Acoustic Resonance”. Proceedings of the 111th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 5474, Nov./Dec., 2001.

25. S. J. Elliott, L. P. Bhatia, F. Deghan, A. H. Fu, M. S. Stewart, and D. W. Wilson. “Practical Implementation of Low-Frequency Equalization Using Adaptive Digital Filters”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 42(12):988–998, Dec. 1994.

26. L. D. Fielder. “Analysis of Traditional and Reverberation-Reducing Methods for Room Equalization”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., (51):3–26, 2003.

27. T. S. Welti and A. Devantier. “In-room Low Frequency Optimization”. Proceedings of the 115th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 5942, Oct. 2003.

28. M. Karjalainen, P. Antsalo, A. M¨akivirta, and V. V¨alim¨aki. “Perception of Temporal Decay of Low-frequency Room Modes”. Proceedings of the 116th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 6083, May 2004.

29. B. M. Fazenda and M. R. Wankling. “Optimal Modal Spacing and Density for Critical Listening”. Proceedings of the 125th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 7584, Oct. 2008.

30. M. R. Avis, B. M. Fazenda, and W. J. Davies. “Thresholds of Detection for Changes to the Q-factor of Low Frequency Modes in Listening Environments”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 55(7-8):611–622, Aug. 2007.

31. A. Goldberg. “Windowed Sine Bursts: In Search of Optimal Test Signals for Detecting the Threshold of Audibility of Temporal Decays”. Proceedings of the 126th Audio Engineering Society Convention, prep. No. 7812, May 2009.

32. A. Goldberg. “A Listening Test System For Measuring The Threshold of Audibility of Temporal Decays”. Proc. of the Inst. of Acoust., 27(5):46–57, 2005.

33. Lenine. “Meu Amanh˜a” (16s-22s) from the album ”Na Press˜ao”. In Compact Disc RCA/BMG 710762, 1999.

34. H. Cole. “Jersey Girl” (1s-8s) from the album ”Temptation”. In Compact Disc Blue Note 0724383165353, 1995.

35. M. Stephenson. Assessing the Quality of Low Frequency Audio Reproduction in Critical Listening Spaces. Doctoral Thesis, University of Salford, UK, 2012.

36. H. Fletcher and W. A. Munson. “Loudness, Its Definition, Measurement and Calculation”. J. Acoust. Soc. of Am., 5(2):82–108, October 1933.

37. Heinrich Kuttruff. Room Acoustics. Taylor and Francis, London and New York, 4th edition, 2000, Ch. 3, pp. 60–63.

38. M. Wankling, B. Fazenda, and W. J. Davies. “The Assessment of Low-Frequency Room Acoustic Parameters Using Descriptive Analysis”. J. Aud. Eng. Soc., 60(5):325–337, 2012.

39. P. M. Morse. Vibration and Sound. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1st edition, 1936, Ch. 8, pp. 306–322.

40. B. M Fazenda. The Perception of Room Modes. Doctoral Thesis, University of Salford, UK, 2004.

41. M. M. Taylor and C. D. Creelman. “PEST: Efficient Estimates on Probability Functions”. J. Acoust. Soc. of Am., 41(4):782–787, April 1967.

42. ITU. “ITU-BS.1770 Algorithms to Measure Audio Programme Loudness and True-Peak Audio Level”. Technical report, International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland 2006.

43. A. Goldberg. “Measuring the Threshold of Audibility of Temporal Decays”. Proc. of the 120th Aud. Eng. Soc. Convention, prep. No. 6823, May 2006.

44. E. Zwicker “Dependence of Postmasking on Masker Duration and its Relation to Temporal Effects in Loudness”. J. Acoust. Soc. of Am., 75(1):219–223, 1984.

45. H. Fastl and E. Zwicker. Psychoacoustics. Facts and Models. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 3rd Edition, 2007, Ch. 4, p. 78.

Depositing User: Matthew Stephenson
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2015 13:01
Last Modified: 04 Nov 2015 22:26
URI: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/24317

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

Repository Staff Only: item control page

View Item View Item

University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©